POSSIBILITY OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF TIME
[Unpublished article by N. A. Kozyrev: English title as
above; Pulkovo, "O VOZMOZHNOSTI EKSPERIMENTAL'NGO
ISSLEDOVANIYA SVOYSTV VREMENI", Russian, September 1967,
pp 1-49]
Part 1.
Theoretical Concepts
Time is the most important and most enigmatic property
of nature. The concept of time surpasses our imagination.
The recondite attempts to understand the nature of time by
the philosophers of antiquity, the scholars in the Middle
Ages, and the modern scientist, possesing a knowledge of
sciences and the experience of their history, have proven
fruitless. Probably this occurs because time involves the
most profound and completely unknown properties of the
world which can scarcely bne envisaged by the bravest
flight of human fancy. Past these properties of the world
there passes the thiumphal procession of modern science and
technical progress. In reality, the exact sciences negate
the existence in time of any other qualities other than the
simplest quality of "duration" or time intervals, the
measurement of which is realized in hours. This quality of
time is similar to the spatial interval. The theory of
relativity by Einstein made this analogy more profound,
considering time intervals and space as compo- nents of a
four-dimensional interval of a Minkowski universe. Only the
pseudo-Euclidian nature of the geometry of the Minkowski
universe differentiates the time interval from the space
interval. Under such a conception, time is scalar ( scalar
= weight ) and quite passive. It only supplements the
spatial arena, against which the events of the universe are
played out. Owing to one scalarity of time, in the
equations of theoretical mechanics the future is not
separated from the past; hence the causes are not separated
from the results. In the result, classical mechanics
brings to the universe a strictly deterministic, but
deprived, causality. At the same time, causality comprises
the most important quality of the real world. The concept
of causality is the basis of natural science. The
natural scientist is convinced that the question
"why?" is a legitimate one, that a question can be found
for it. However, the content of the exact sciences is much
more impoverished. In the precise sciences, the legitimate
question is only "how?". i.e., in what manner a given
chain of occurrences takes place. Therefore, the precise
sciences are descriptive. The description is made in a
four-dimensional world, which signifies the possibility of
predicting events. This possibility prediction is the key
to the power of the precise sciences. The fascination of
this power is so great that it often compels one to forget
the basic, incomplete nature of their basis. It is
therefore probable that the philosophical concept of Mach,
derived strictly logically from the bases of the exact
sciences, attracted great attention, in spite of its
nonconformity to our knowlege concerning the universe and
daily experience. The natural desire arises to introduce
into the exact sciences the principles of natural
sciences. In other words, the tendency is to attempt to
introduce into theoretical mechanics the principle of
causality and directivity of time. Such a mechanics can be
called "causal" or "asymetrical" mechanics. In such
mechanics, there should be be realizable experience,
indicating where the cause is and where the result is. It
can be demonstrated that in statistical mechanics there is
a directivity of time and that it satisfies our desires. In
reality, statistical mechanics constructs a certain bridge
between natural and theoretical mechanics. In the
statistical grouping, an asymmetrical state in time can
develop, owing to unlikely initial conditions caused by the
intervention of a proponent of the system, the effect of
which is causal. If, subsequently, the system will be
isolated, in conformity with the second law of
thermodynamics, its entropy will increase, and the
directivity of time will be associated with this trend in
the variation of entropy. As a result, the system will lead
to the most likely condition; it will prove to be in
equilibrium, but then the fluctuations in the entropy of
vaious signs will be encountered with equal frequency.
Therefore, even in the statistical mechanics of an isol-
ated system, under the most probable condition, the
directivity of time will not exist. It is quite natural
that in statistical mechanics, based on the conventional
mechanics of a point , the direction of time does not
appear as a quality of time itself but originates only as a
property of the state of the system. If the directivity of
time and other possible qualities are objective, they
should enter the system of elementary mechanics of isolated
processes. However, the statistical generalization of such
mechanics can lead to a conclusion concerning the
unattainability of equilibrium conditions. In reality, the
directivity of time signifies a pattern continuously
existing in time, which, acting upon the material system,
can cause it to transfer to an equilibrium state. Under
such a consideration, the events should occur not only in
time, as in a certain arens, but also with the aid of time.
Time becomes an active participant in the universe,
eliminating the possibility of thermal death. Then, we can
understand harmony of life and death, which we perceive as
the essence of our world. Already, owing to these
possibilities alone, one should carefully examine the
question as to the manner in which the concept of the
directivity of time or its pattern can be introduced into
the mechanics of elementary processes.
We shall represent mechanics in the simplest form, as
the classical mechanics of a point or a system of material
points. Desiring to introduce thus into mechanics the
principle of causality of natural science, we immediately
encounter the difficulty that the idea of causality has not
been completely formulated in natural science. In the
constant quests for causes, the naturalist is guided
rather by his own intuition than by fixed procedures. We
can state only that causality is linked in the closest way
with the properties of time, specifically with the
difference in the future and the past. Therefore, we will
be guided by the following hypotheses:
I) Time possesses a quality, creating a difference in
causes from effects, which caqn be evoked by directivity or
pattern. This property determines the difference in the
past from the future.
The requirement for this hypothesis is indicated by the
difficulties associated with the development of the
Leibnitz idea concerning the definition of the
directivity of time through the causal relationships. The
profound studies by H Reichenbach [1] and G. Whitrow [2]
indicate that one can never advance this idea strictly,
without tautology. Causality provides us with a concept of
the existence of directivity in time and concerning certain
properties of this directivity; at the same time, it does
not constitute the essence of this phenomenon, but only
its result.
Let us now attempt, utilizing the simpleist properties
of causality, to provide a quantitative expression of
hypotheses I. Proceeding from those circumstances in which:
1) cause is always outside of the body in which the result
is realized and 2) the result sets in after the cause, we
can dormulate the next two axioms:
II) Causes and results are always separated by space.
Therefore, between them exists an arbitrarily small, but
not equalling zero, spatial difference ëx.
III) Causes and results are separated in time.
Therefore, between their appearance there exists an
arbitrarily small, but not equalling zero time difference
ët of a fixed sign.
Axiom II forms the basis of classical Newtonian
mechanics. It is contained in a third law, according to
whicha variation in a quantity of motion cannot occur under
the effect of internal forces. In other words, in body
there cannot develop an external force without the
participation of another body. Hence, based on the
impenetrability of matter, &x is not = to 0. However, on
the basis of the complete reversibility of time, axiom III
is lacking in the Newtonian mechanics: &t = 0.
In atomic mechanics, just the oppsite takes place. In
it, the principle of impenetrability loses its value and,
based on the possibility of the superposition of fields, it
is obviously assumed that &x = 0. However, in atomic
mechanics there is a temporal irreversibility, which did
not exist in the Newtonian mechanics. The influence upon
the system of a macroscopic body, i.e., they devise,
introduces a difference between the future and the past,
because the future proves predictable, while the past is
not. Therefore, in the temporal environs of the
experiment &t is not = to 0, although it can be arbitrarily
small. In this manner, classical mechanics and atomic
mechanics enter into our axiomatics as two extreme systems.
This circumstance becomes especially clear if we introduce
the relationship:
&x
--- = C . (1)
&t 2
In a real world, C most likely constitutes a finite
2
value. However, in classical mechanics, &x is not = to 0,
&t = 0, and hence C = oo. In atomic ý mechanics, &x = 0,
2
&t is not = 0, and therefore C = 0.
2
Let us now discuss the concept of the symbols &x and &t
introduced by us. In a long chain of causal-resultant
transformations, we are considering only that elementary
chain wherein the cause produces the result. According to
the usual physical viewpoints, this chain comprises a
spatial time point, not subject to further analysis.
However, on the bases of our axioms of causality, this
elementary causal-resultant chain should have a structure
caused by the impssibility of the spatial-time
superimposition of causes and effects. The condition of
non-superimposition in the case of the critical approach is
stipulated by the symbols &x and &t. Hence, these symbols
signify the limit of the infinitely-small values under the
condition that they never revert to 0. These symbols
determine the point distances or dimensions of an "empty"
point, situated between the material points, with which the
causes and effects are linked. However, in the calculation
of the intervalsc of the entire causal- resultant chain,
they should be considered equal to 0 with any degree of
accuracy. However, in the calculation of the low values of
one order, their ratio C can be a finite value and can
2
express a qualitatively physical property of the
causal-resultant relationship. This physical property is
included in the pattern of time, formulated qualitatively
by hypothesis I.
In reality, according to definition (I), the value C
2
has the dimensionality of velocity and yields a value of
the rate of the transition of the cause to the effect. This
transition is accomplished through the "empty" point, where
there are no material bodies and there is only space and
time. Hence, the value C can be associated only with the
2
properties of time and space, not with the properties of
bodies. Therefore, C should be a universal constant,
2
typifying ý the patter of time of our world. The
conversion of the cause to an effect requires the
overcoming of the "empty" point in space. This point is an
abyss, the transition through which can be realized only
with the aid of the time pattern. From this, there follows
directly the active participation of time in the process of
the material systems.
In Eq. (1), the symbol ët has a definite meaning. It
can be established by the standard condition: the future
minus the past comprises a positive value. However, the
sign of the value for &x is quite arbitrary, since space is
isotropic and in it there is no principal direction. At the
same time, the sign of C should be definite, because
2
logically we should have a possibility of conceiving the
world with an opposite time pattern: i.e., of another sign.
The difficulty arises which at first glance seems
insurmountable, and disrupting the entire structure
formulated until now. However, owing to just this
difficulty, it becomes possible to make an unequivocal
conclusion: C is not a scalar value but a pseudo-scalar
2
value: i.e., a scalar changing sign in case of the
mirror image or inversion of the coordinate system. In
order to be convinced of this, let us rewrite Eq. (1) in a
vector form, having signified by i the unit vector of the
direction of the causal-resultant relationship:
C (i&t)=&x (1a)
2
If C is pseudo-scalar, i&t should be a critical value
2
of a pseudo-vector ý colinear with the critical vector ëx.
The pseudo-vector nature of i&t signifies that in the plane
(YZ) of a perpendicular to the X-axis there occurs a
certain turning, the sign of which can be determined by the
sign of ët. This means that with the aid of ët, we can
orient the plane perpendicular to the X-axis: i.e., we can
allocate the arrangement of the Y and Z axes. Let us now
alter now in Eq. (1) the sign of ëx, retaining the sign of
ët and signifying the retention of the orientation of the
plane (Y,Z). Then the constant C changes its sign, as it
2
should, since our operation is tantamount to a mirror
image. However, if we change the sign not only of &x but
also of &t, the constant C based on Eq. (1) does not
change sign. This should be the case, because in the given
instance we effected only a turning of the coordinate
system. Finally, changeing the sign of ët only, we once
again obtain a mirror (specular) image of the coordinate
system under which the sign of the pseudo-scalar should
change. This proof of the pseudo-scalar property of the
time pattern can be explained by the following simple
discussion. The time pattern should be determined in relat-
ion to a certain invariant. Such an invariant, independant
of the properties of matter, can be only space. The
absolute value of the time pattern is obtained when the
absolute difference in the future and the past will be
linked with the absolute difference in the properties of
space. In space there are no differences in directions, but
there is an absolute difference between right and left,
although these concepts per se are quite tentative.
Therefore, the time pattern also should be established by a
value having the sense of a linear velocity of turning
(rotation). From this it follows that C cannot equal the
2
speed of light C comprising the conventional scalar.
1
From the pseudo-scalar properties of the time pattern,
there immediately follows the basic theorem of causal
mechanics:
A world with an opposite time pattern is equivalent to
our world, reflected in a mirror.
In a world reflected by a mirror, causality is
completely retained. There- fore, in a world with an
opposite time pattern the events should develop just as
regularly as in our world. It is erroneous to think that,
having run a movie film of our world in a reverse
direction, we would obtain a pattern of the world of an
opposite time direction. We can in no way formally change
the sign in the time intervals. This leads to a disruption
of causality: i.e., to an absurdity, to a world which
cannot exist. In a variation of the directivity of time,
there should also become modified the influences which the
time pattern exerts upon the material system. Therefore,
the world reflected in a mirror should differ in its
physical properties from our world. However, classical
mechanics confirms the identity of these worlds. Up until
recent times, this identity was assumed in atomic mechanics
and was said to be the law of the preservation of parity.
However, these studies by Lie and Young of the nuclear
processes during weak interactions led to the experiments,
having demonstrated the erroneous position of this law.
This result is quite natural under the actual existence of
time directivity, which is confirmed by the direct
experiments described later. At the same time,, one can
never make the opposite conclusion. Numerous investigations
of the observed phenomena of the nonpreservation of parity
have demonstrated the possibility of other interpretations.
It is necessary to conclude that further experiments in
the field of nuclear physics narrow the scope of possible
interpretations to such an extent that the existence of
time directivity in the elementary processes will become
quite obvious.
The difference in the world from the mirror image is
especially graphically indicated by biology. The morphology
of animals and plants provides many examples of asymmetry,
distinguishing right from left and independently of what
hemisphere of the earth the organism is living in.
Asymmetry of organisms is manifested not only in their
morphology. The chemical asymmetry of protoplasm
discovered by Louis Pasteur demonstrates that the asymmetry
constitutes a basic property of life. The persistent
asymmetry of organisms being transmitted to their
descendents cannot be random. This asymmetry can be not
only a passive result of the laws of nature, reflecting the
time direct- ivity. Most likely, under a definite
asynnetry, corresponding to the given time pattern, an
organism acquires an additional viability: i.e., it can use
it for the reinforcement of life processes. Then, on the
bases of our fundamental theorem, we can conclude that in a
world with an opposite time pattern, the heart in the
vertebrates would be located on the right, the shells of
mollusks would be mainly turned leftward, and in protoplasm
there would be observed an opposite qualitative inequality
of the right and left molecules. It is possible that the
specially formulated biological experi- ments will be able
to prove directly that life actually uses the time pattern
as an additional source of energy.
Let us now comment on yet another important
circumstance, connected with the determination of the time
pattern by Eq. (1). Each causal-resultant relationship has
a certain spatial direction, the base vector of which is
signified by i. Therefore, in an actual causal relationship
the pseudo-scalar i ù C will be oriented by the time
2
pattern. Let us prove that at one ý point -- the cause --
and at another point -- the result -- these values should
be in opposite directions. In reality, the result in the
future will be situated in relation to the cause, while the
cause in the past will be situated in relation to the
result. This means that at the points cause and effect ët
should have opposite signs, meaning that there should also
be an opposite orientation of the plane perpendicular to i.
Then, at a definite i-value we have a change in the type of
the coordinate system, and the expression iC will have
2
different signs. However,if during the transition from the
cause to the effect we have a change in the sign of i, the
sign of C will remain unchanged and, hence, iC will
2 2
change sign in this case also. This means that
the time pattern is characterized by the values +iC
2
and constitutes a physical process, the model of which
can be the relative rotation of a certain ideal top
(gyroscope). By an ideal gyroscope, we connote a body the
entire mass of which is located at a certain single
distance from the axis. This top can have an effect on
another body through a material axis of rotation and
material relationships with this axis, the masses of which
can be disregarded. Therefore, the mechanical property of
an ideal gyroscope will be equivalent to the properties of
a material point having the mass of the gyroscope, and its
rotation. Let us assume that the point with which the top
interacts is situated along the direction of its axis. Let
us signify by j the bas vector of this direction and
consider it to be aq standard vector. We can tentatively,
independently of the type of the coordinate system, place
it in another point: for example, in the direction from
which the rotation of the top appears to be originating --
in this case, in a clockwise direction. The rotation of the
top which is occurring can be described by the approximate
pseudo-scalar ju, where u equals the linear velocity of
rotation. With such a description and the direction
selected by us, u should be pseudo-scalar, positive in the
left hand system of coordinates. Let us now consider the
motion of a point upon which the gyroscope axis is acting
from the position of the point on its rim. Since the
distance of this point from the plane of the rim is
arbitrarily small, its velocity, computed from the position
of the rim in respect to the radius and the period, will be
the same value for u. We can draw on a sheet of paper the
motion of the points of the rim relative to the center and
to the motion of the center from the position of the rim
points. The motion is obtained in one direction if we
examine the paper from the same side: e.g., from above.
However, the infinitely small emergence of a stationary
point from the plane of the rim compels us to examine the
rotation from another position: i.e., to examine the
paper from beneath. We obtain a rotation in the opposite
direction, as a result of which we should compare with the
gyroscope the approximate pseudo-scalar: i.e., ju. This
signifies that the time pattern being determined by the
values +iC actually has an affinity with the relative
2
rotation, which is determined by the value +ju of the same
type. It is understandable that this formal analogy does
not fully esplain the essence of a time pattern. However,
it opens up the remarkable possibility of an experimental
study of the properties of time. In reality, if into the
causal relationship there will enter a rotating body, we
can expect a combination of values +iC and +ju, since this
2
operation is quite permissible from a mathematical
standpoint. In other words, we can expect that in a system
with rotation the time pattern changes instead of +iC : it
2
becomes equal to +(iC + ju). Let us now attempt to explain
2
which variations can occur in a mecanical system. For this,
it is necessary to refine the concept of cause and effect
in mechanics
The forces are the cause altering the mutual
arrangement of bodies and their quantity of motion. The
change in the arrangement of bodies can lead to the
appearance of new forces, and according to the d'Alembert
priciple, the variation of a quantity of motion for unit
time, taken with an opposite sign, can be regarded as the
force of inertia. Therefore, in mechanics the forces are
comprised of the causes and all possible effects. However,
in the movement of a body (1) under the effect of a force
F, the force of inertia dp /dt does not constitute a result.
1
Both of these forces originate at one point. According to
axiom II, owing to this there cannot be a causal-resultant
relationship between them, and they are identical concepts.
Therefore, as Kirchoff operated in his mechanics, the force
of inertia can serve as a determination of the force F. The
force F, applied to point (1) can evoke an effect only in
another point (2). Let us call this force of the result of
the effect S of the first point upon the second:
0
dp dp
1 2
S = F - ------ = ------- (2)
0 dt dt
For the first point, however, it comprises the lost
d'Alembert force:
dp dp
1 2
------ = F - -------
dt dt
In conformity with these expressions, we can consider
that for the time dt, point (1) loses the pulse dp which
2
is transmitted to point (2). In the case for which there
is a causal relationship between point (1) and (2),
&t is not = to 0, and between
them there exists the approximate difference &p is not =
2
to 0. When the cause is situated at point (1), the
transition of dp from point (1) to point (2) corresponds
2
to an increase in the time. Therefore :
&p &p
1 2
------ = ------- = ” (3)
&t &t 0
Let us signify by i the unit vector of effect S . Then,
0
according to Eq. (3):
| &p | |&p |
2 | 2 | |&x|
” = i|” | = i ------ = i |----| ----- .
0 0 &t | &x | &t
According to Eq. (1), the value ³&x³/&t can be replaced
by C if we tentatively utilize that system of coordinates
2
in which C is positive
2
| &p |
| 2 |
S = iC | ----|. (4)
0 2 | &x |
Under this condition:
| &p |
| 2 |
S = iC | ----|. (4)
0 2 | &x |
The factor at iC comprises a value independent of a
2
time pattern: i.e., a force invariant. In reality, during
any pattern of time not only the spatial intervals but also
the time intervals should be measured by the unchanging scales.
Therefore, the velocity and, consequently, also thepulses
should not depend on the pattern (course) of time. As was
demonstrated above, in case of the existence of a time
pattern iC in point (2), there must be in point (1) the
2
time pattern -iC . This means that during the effect upon
2
point (2), there must be a counter effect or a reaction
force R in point (1):
0
| &p |
| 2 |
R = - iC | ----|. (5)
0 2 | &x |
Thus, the third Newtonian law proves to be the direct
result of the properties of
causality and pattern of time. The effect and the counter
effect comprise two facets of the identical phenomenon, and
between them a time discontinuity cannot exist. In this
manner, the law of the conservation of a pulse is one of
the most fundamental laws of nature.
Let us now assume that the time pattern has varied and,
instead of +iC it has become equal to +( iC + ju ).
2 2
Then, based on Eqs. (4), and (5), the following
transformation of forces should occur:
| &p | | &p |
| 2 | | 2 |
S = (iC +ju)| ----|; R = - (iC + ju)|-----| .
2 | &x | 2 | &x |
The additional forces are obtained
u
&S = S - S = + j --- |S |,
0 C 0
2
(6)
u
&R = R - R = - j --- |S |,
0 C 0
2
Thus, in the causal relationship with a spinning top
(gyroscope), we can expect the appearance of additional
forces (6), acting along the axis of rotation of the top.
The proper experiments described in detail in the following
section indicate that, in reality, during the rotation,
forces develop acting upon the axis and depending upon the
time direction. The measured value of the additional forces
permits us to determine, based on Eq. (6), the value C of
2
the time pattern not only in magnitude but also in sign: i.e.,
to indicate the type of the coordinate system in which C is
2
positive. It turns out that the time pattern of our world
is positive in a levorotary system of coordinates. From
this, we are afforded the possibility of an objective
determination of left and right; the left-hand system of
coordinates is said to be that system in which the time
progress is positive, while the right- hand system is one
in which it is negative. In this manner, the time progress
linking all of the bodies in the world, even during their
isolation, plays the role of that material bridge
concerning the need, of which Gauss (3) has already spoken,
for the coordination of the concepts of left and right.
The appearance of the additional forces can perhaps be
graphically repre- sented in the following manner: Time
enters a system through the cause to the effect. The
rotation alters the possibility of this inflow, and, as a
result, the time pattern can create additional stresses in
the system. The additional stresses alter the potential and
the full energy of the system. These variations produce
the time pattern. From this it follows that time has
energy. Since the additional forces are equal and are
directed oppositely, the pulse of the system does not vary.
This signifies that time does not have a pulse, although it
possesses energy. In Newtonian mechanics, C = oo. The
2
additional forces according to Eq. (6) disappear, as
should occur in this mechanics. This is natural because the
infinite pattern of time can in no way be altered.
Therefore, time proves to be an imparted fate and
invincible force. Jowever, the actual time has a finite
pattern and can be effective, and this signifies that the
principle of time can be reversible. How, in reality, these
effects can be accomplished should be demonstrated sometime
by experiments studying the properties of time.
In atomic mechanics, C = 0. Equqtions (6), obtained by
2
a certain refinement of the principles of Newtonian
mechanics, are approximate and do not give the critical
transition at C = 0. They only indicate that the
2
additional effects not envisaged by Newtonian mechanics
will play the pre- dominant part. The causality becomes
completely intertwined (confused) and the occurrences of
nature will remain to be explained statistically.
The Newtonian mechanics correspond to a world with
infinitely stable causal causal relationships, while atomic
mechanics represent another critical case of a world with
infinitely weal causal relationships. Equations (6)
indicate that the mechanics corresponding to the principles
of the causality of natural science should be developed
from the aspect of Newtonian mechanics, and not from the
viewpoint of atomic mechanics. For instance, we can expect
the apperance of quantam effects in macroscopic mechanics.
The theoretical concepts expounded here are basically
necessary only in order to know how to undertake the
experiments in the study of the properties of time. Time
represents an entire world of enigmatic phenomena, and they
can in no way be persuid by logical deliberations. The
properties of time must be gradually explained by physical
experiment.
For the formulation of the experiments, it is important
to have a foreknowledge of the value of the expected
effects, which depent upon the value C . We can attempt to
2
estimate the numerical value of C , proceeding from the
2
dimensionality concepts. The single universal constant
which can have the meaning of a pseudo-scalar is the Planck
constant, h. In reality, this constant has the
dimensionality of a moment of a quantity of motion and
determines the spin of elementary particles. Now, utilizing
the Planck constant in any scalar universal constant, it is
necessary to obtain a value having the dimensionality of
velocity. It is easy to establish that the expression
2
C = ae /h = 350 ª¬/á (7)
2
comprises a unique combination of this type. Here e equals
he charge of an elementary particle and à equals a certain
dimensionless factor. Then, based on Eq. (6), at u = 100
-4
m/sec, the additional forces will be of the order of 10
-5
or 10 (at a considerable a-value) from the
applied forces. At such a value for C , the forces of the
2
time pattern can easily be revealed in the ý simplest
esperiments not requiring high accuracy of
measurements.
Part II.
Experiments on Studying the Properties of Time, and
Basic Findings
The experimental verification of the above-developed
theoretical concepts was started as early as the winter of
1951-1952. From that time, these tests have been carried on
continuously over the course of a number of years with the
active participation by graduate student V. G. Labeysh. At
the present time, they are underway in the laboratory of
the Pulkovo Observatory with engineer V. V. Nasonov. The
work performed by Nasonov imparted a high degree of
reliability to the experiments. During the time of these
investigations, we accumulated numerous and diversified
data, permitting us to form a number of conclusions
concerning the properties of time. We did not succeed in
interpreting all of the material, and not all of the
material has a uniform degree of reliability. Here we will
discuss only those data which were subjected to a recurrent
checking and which, from our viewpoint, are completely
reliable. We will also strive to form conclusions from
these data.
The theoretical concepts indicate that the tests on the
study of causal relationships and the relationships and the
pattern of time need to be conducted with rotating bodies:
namely, gyroscopes. The first tests were made in order to
verify that the law of the conservation of a pulse is
always fulfilled, and independently of the condition of
rotation of bodies. These tests were conducted on
lever-type weights. At a deceleration of the gyroscope,
rotating by inertia, its moment of rotation should be
imparted to the weights, causing an inevitable tortion of
the suspensions. In order to avert the suspension
difficulties associated with this, the rotation of the
gyroscope should be held constant. Therefore, we utilized
gyro- scopes from aviation automation, the velocity of
which was controlles by a variable 3-phase current with a
frequency of the order of 500 cps. The gyroscope's rotor
turned with this same frequency. It appeared possible,
without decreasing significantly the suspension precision,
to supply current to the gyroscope suspended on weights
with the aid of three very thin uninsulated conductors.
During the suspension the gyroscope was installed in a
hermetically sealed box, which excluded completely the
effect of air currents. The accuracy of this suspension was
of the order of 0.1 - 0.2 mg. With a vertical arrangement
of the axis and various rotation velocities, the readings
of the weights remained unchanged. For example, proceeding
from the data for the data for one of the gyroscopes
(average diameter D of rotor equals 4.2 cm: rotor weight Q
equals 250 gr.), we can conclude that with a linear
ritational velocity u = 70 m/sec, the effective force upon
the weights will remain unchanged, witha precision higher
than up to the sixth place. In these experiments, we also
introduced the following interesting theoretical
complication; The box with the gyroscope was suspended
from an iron plate, which attracted the electromagnets
fastened together with a certain mass. This entire system
was suspended on weights by means of an elastic band. The
current was supplied to the electromagnets with the aid of
two very thin conductors. The system for breaking the
current was established separately from the weights. At
the breaking of the circuit, the box with the gyroscope
fell to a clipper fastened to the electromagnets. The
amplitude of these drops and the subsequent rises could
reach 2mm. The test was conducted for various directions
of suspension and rotation rates of the gyroscope, at
different amplitudes, and at an oscillation frequency
ranging from units to hundreds of cps. For a rotating
gyroscope, just as for a stationary one, the readings of
the weights remained unchanged. We can consider that the
experiments described substantiate fairly well the
theoretical conclusion concerning the conservation of a
pulse in causal mechanics.
In spite of their theoretical interest, the previous
experiments did not yield any new effects capable of
confirming the role of causality in mechanics. However, in
their fulfillment it was noted that in the transmission of
the vibrations from the gyroscope to the support of the
weights variations in the readings of the weights can
appear, depending on the velocity and direction of rotation
of the gyroscopes. When the vibrations of the weights
themselves begin, the box with the gyroscope discontinues
being strictly a closed system, However, the weights can go
out of equilibrium if the additional effect of the
gyroscope developing from rotation proves to be transferred
from the shaft of the gyroscope to the weights' support.
From these observations, a series of tests with these
gyroscopes developed.
In the first type the vibrations were due to the energy
of the rotor and its pounding in the bearings, depending on
the clearance in them. It is understandable that the
vibrations interfere with accurate suspension. Therefore,
it was necessary to abandon the precision weights of the
analytical type and convert to engineering weights, in
which the ribs of the prisms contact small areas having the
form of caps. Nevertheless, in this connection we managed
to maintain an accuracy of the order of 1 mg in the
differential measurements. The support areas in the form
of caps are also convenient by virtue of the fact that with
them we can conduct the suspension of gyroscomes rotating
by inertia. A gyroscope suspended on a rigid support can
transmit through a yoke its vibrations to support of the
weights. With a certain type of vibration, which was
chosen completely by feel, there occurred a considerable
decrease in the effect of the gyroscope upon the weights
during its rotation in a counter-clockwise direction, if
we examined it from above. During rotation in a clock- wise
direction, under the same conditions, the readings of the
weights remained practically unchanged. Measurements
conducted with gyroscopes of varying weight and rotor
radius, at various angular velocities, indicated that a
reduction in the weight, in conformity with Eq. (6), is
actually proportional to the weight and to the linear rate
of rotation. For example, at a rotation of the gyroscope (D
= 4.6 cm, Q = 90 gr, u = 25 m/sec), we obtained the weight
difference Q = -8 mg. With rotation in a clockwise
direction, it always turned out that Q = 0. However, with
a horizontal arrangement of the axis, in azimuth, we found
the average value Q = -4 mg. From this, we can conclude
that any vibrating body under the conditions of these
experiments should indicate a reduction in weight. Further
studies demonstrated that this effect is caused by the
rotation of the earth, which will be discussed in detail
later. Presently, the only fact of importance to us is that
during the vibration there is developed a new zero reading
relative to which with a rotation in a counterclockwise
direction, we obtain a weight reduction, while during a
rotation in a clockwise direction we obtain a completely
uniform increase in weight (Q = 4 mg). In this manner,
Eq. (6) is given a complete, experimental confirmation. It
follows from the adduced data that C = 550 km/sec.
2
According to this condition, the vector j is oriented in
that direction in which the rotation appears to be
originating in a clockwise direction it is directed
downward. With such a rotation, the gyroscope becomes
slightly lighter, meaning that its additional effect upon
the support of the weights is directed downward: i.e., in
respect to the base vector j. This will obtain in the case
in which u and C have the same signs. Under our
2
condition relative to the direction of the base vector j
the pseudo scalar u is positive in a left-hand system of
coordinates. Consequently, a time pattern of our world is
also positive in a left-hand system. Therefore,
subsequently we will always utilize a left-hand system of
coordinates. The aggregation of the tests conducted then
permitted us to refine the value of C :
2
C = + 700+50 km/sec in a left-hand (8)
2
system.
This value always makes probable the relationship of
the time pattern with other universal constants based on
Eq. (7) at a = 2. Then, the dimensionless constant of the
thin Sommerfeld structure becomes simply a ratio of the two
velocities C /C , each of which occurs in nature.
2 1
The tests conducted on weights with vibrations of a
gyroscope also yield a new basic result. It appears that
the additional force of effect and counter effect can be
situated in different points of the system: i.e., on the
support of the weights and on the gyroscope. We derive a
pair of forces rotating the balance arm of the weights.
Hence, tome possesses not only energy but also a rotation
moment which it can transmit to a system.
A basic checking of the results obtained with the
weights yields a pendulum in which the body constitutes a
vibrating gyroscope with a horizontal axis susp- ended on a
long fine thread. As in the tests conducted with the
weights, during the rotation of a gyroscope under quiescent
conditions nothing took place and this filament (thread)
did not deflect from the perpendicular. However, at a
certain stage of the vibrations in the gyroscope the
filament deflected from the perpendicular, always at the
same amount (with a given u-value) and in the direction
from which the gyroscope's rotation occurred in a
counterclockwise direction. With a filament length 1 = 2 m
and u = 25 m/sec, the deflection amounted to 0.07 mm, which
yields, for the ratio of the horizontal force to the
-5
weight, the value 3.5 ù 10 , sufficiently close to the
results of this suspension.
A significant disadvantage of the tests described is
the impossibility of a simple control of the vibration
conditions. Therefore, it is desirable to proceed to tests
in which the vibrations are developed not by the rotor but
by the stationary parts of the system.
In the weights, the support of the balance arm was
gripped by a special clamp, which was connected by a
flexible cable with a long metal plate. One end of this
plate rested in a ball-bearing, fitted eccentrically to the
shaft of an electric motor, and was connected by a rubber
clamp with the bearing. The other end of the plate was
fastened by a horizontal shaft. Changing the speed of the
electric motor and the position of the cable on the plate,
we were able to obtain harminic oscillations of the balance
arm support of the weights of any frequency and amplitude.
The guiding devices for raising the balance arm support
during a stopping of the weights eliminated the possibility
of horizontal swaying. For the suspension of the
gyroscope, it was necessary to find the optimal conditions
under which the vibration was transmitted to the rotor and,
at the same time, this end of the balance arm remained
quasi-free relative to the other end, to which the
balancing load was rigidly suspended. Under such
conditions, the balance arm can vibrate freely, rotating
around its end, fastened by a weight to a rigid suspension.
Oscillations of this type could be obtained by suspending
the gyroscope on a steel wire 0.15 mm in diameter and with
a length of the order of 1-1.5 m. With this arrangement, we
observe the variation in the weight of the gyroscope during
its rotation around the vertical axis. It was remarkable
that, in comparison with the pre- vious tests, the effect
proved to be of the opposite sign. During the turning of
the gyroscope counterclockwise, we found, not a lightening,
but a consider- able weight increase. This means that in
this case there operates upon the gyro- scope an additional
force, oriented in a direction from which the rotation
appears to be originating in a clockwise direction. This
result signifies that the causality in the system and the
time pattern introduced a vibration and that the source of
the vibration establishes the position of the cause. In
these tests, a source of the vibration is the non-rotating
part of the system, while in the initial model of the
tests, a rotor constituted a source. Trans- posing in
places the cause and the effect, we alter in respect to
them the direction of rotation: i.e., the sense of the base
vector j. From this, based on Eq. (6), there originates the
change in the sign of the additional forces. In
conventional mechanics all of the forces do not depend
entirely on what comprises the source of the vibration, but
also on what is the effect. However, in causal mechanics,
observing the direction of the additional forces, we can
immediately state where the cause of the vibrations is
located. This means that in reality it is possible to have
a mechanical experiment distinguishing the cause from the
effects.
The tests with the pendulum provided the same result. A
gyroscope suspended on a fine wire, during the vibration of
a point of this suspension, deflected in a direction from
which its rotation transpired in a clockwise direction. The
vibration of the suspension was accomplished with the aid
of an electromagnetic device. To the iron plate of a relay
installed horizontally, we soldered a flex- ible metal rod,
on which the pendulum wire was fastened. Owing to the rod,
the oscillations became more harmonic. The position of the
relay was regulated in such a way that there would not be
any horizontal displacements of the suspension point. For
monitoring the control, we connected a direct current, with
which the electromagnet attracted the plate and raised the
suspension point. The position of the filament (thread) was
observed with a laboratory tube having a scale with
divisions of 0.14 mm for the object under observation.
Estimating by eye the fractions of this wide division, we
could, during repeated measurements, obtain a result with
an accuracy of up to 0.01 mm. At a pendulum length 1 = 3.30
m and a rotation velocity u = 40 m/sec, the defl- ection of
the gyroscope l was obtained as equalling 0.12 mm. In
order to obtain a value of the additional force Q in
relation to the weight of the rotor (Q = 250 g), it is
necessary to introduce a correction for the weight of the
gyroscope mounting a = 1.50 g: i.e., to multiply l/l by (Q
+ a)/Q. From this, we derive just that value of C which is
2
presented above (8). In these tests it ý turned out that to
obtain the effect of deflection of the filament, the end of
the gyroscope shaft, from which the rotation appears to be
originating in a clockwise direction, must be raised
somewhat. Hence, in this direction there should exist a
certain projection of force, raising the gyroscope during
the vibrations. In reality, the effect of the deflection
turns out to be even less when we have accomplished a
parametric resonance of the thread with osci- llations, the
plane of which passed through the gyroscope axis.
Evidently, the existence of forces acting in the direction
ju intensifies the similarity of ju with the time pattern
and facilitates the transformation +iC by +(iC +ju).
2
It is also necessary to comment that the gyroscope axis
needs to be located in the plane of the firdt vertical
meridian -- a certain additional displacement developes.
Obviously, this displacement is created by force evoked by
the earth's rotation, which we mentioned in describing the
first experiments of the vibrations on weights. Let us now
return to an explanation of these forces.
Let us signify by u the linear velocity of the rotation
of a point situated on the earth's surface. This point is
situated in gravitational interaction with all other points
of the earth's volume. Their effect is equivalent to the
effect of the entire mass of the earth at a certain
average velocity __, the value of which is located betewwn
zero and u at the equator. Thereefore, in the presence of a
causal relationship there can originate additional forces,
directed along the axis of the earth, and similar forces
acting upon the gyroscope during its rotation with the
velocity (u - ____) relative to the mounting. If the causal
occurrences of the cosmic life of the earth are associated
with the outer layers, these forces should act upon the
surface in the direction from which the rotation appears to
be originating counterclockwise: i.e., toward the north.
Thus, in this case on the earth's surface there should
operate the forces of the time pattern:
-j(u - ____)
Q = ------------ |Q| (9)
C
2
[Translator's note: one line of text is missing at this
point] in the interior of the earth, forces
act in the opposite direction, and according to the law of
conservation of momentum, the earth's center of gravity
does not become_ displaced. In the polar regions u < ____,
and therefore there in both hemispheres Q will be directed
southward. Hence, in each hemisphere there is found a
typical parallel where Q = 0. Under the effect of such
forces, the earth will acquire the shape of a cardioid,
extending to the south. One of the parameters
characterizing a cardioid is the coefficient of asymmetry
E:
b - b
S N
E = ----------- (10)
2A
where A equals the major semi-axis and b and b are the
S N
distances of the poles to the equatorial plane.
On Jupiter and Saturn the equatorial velocity u is
around 10 km/sec. Therefore, on planets with a rapid
rotation the factor can be very high and reach in
conformity (8), (9) several units of the third place.
Careful measurement of photographs of Jupiter made by the
author and D. O. Mokhnach [4] showed that on Jupiter the
southern hemisphere is more extended and
-3 -3
E=+3 10 + 0.6 10 . A similar result, only with less
accuracy, was also obtained for Saturn:
-3 -3
E= 7 10 + 3. 10.
The measurements of the force of gravity of the surface
of the earth and the motion of artificial earth sattelites
indicate that there exists a certain difference of
accelerations of gravity in the northern and southern
-5
hemispheres: g = g - g > 0, g/g = 3.10 . For a
S N
homogeneous planet this should also be the case
for an extended southern hemisphere, becaues the points of
this hemisphere are located farther south from the center
of gravity. The factor E should be of the order of g/g. It
is necessary to stress that the conclusion is in direct
contradiction with the above-presented data concerning
theacceleration of gravity. The gist of this difference
consists in the fact that without allowance for the forces
of the time pattern, the increase in gravity in the
northern hemisphere can be explained only by the presence
there of denser rocks. In this case, the leveled surface
of the same value should regress farther. Identifying the
level surface with the surface of the earth, it will remain
to be inferred that the northern hemisphere is more
extended. However, the sign E obtained directly for
Jupiter and Saturn provide evidence against this
interpretation, containing in itself a further
contradictory assumption concerning concerning the
disequilibrium distribution of the rocks within the earth.
The sign obtained for the asymmetry of the shapes of
planets leads to the paradoxical conclusion to the effect
that the cause of the physical occurrences within the
celestial bodies is situated in the peripheral layers.
However, such a result is possible if, e.g., the energetics
of a planet are determined by its compression. In his
studies of the structure of a star [5], the author
concluded that the power of stars is very similar to the
power of cooling and compressing bodies. The inadequacy of
the knowledge of the essence of the causal relationships
prevents us from delveing into this qeustion. At the same
time, we are compelled to insist on the conclusions which
were obtained from a comparison of the asymmetry of the
planets with the forces acting upon the gyro- scope.
The direction of the perpendicular on the earth's
surface is determined by the combined effect of the forces
of gravity, of centrifugal forces, and the forces of the
time pattern Q operating towsrd the north in our
latitudes. In the case of a free fall, the effect on the
mounting is absent (Q = 0). As a result, the freely falling
body should deflect from the perpendicular to the south by
the value l :
Q
N
l = - ----- l, (11)
S Q
where l equals the height of the body's fall and Q equals
N
the horizontal N component of the forces
of the time pattern in the moderate latitudes. A century or
two ago this problem of the deflection of falling bodies
toward the south attracted considerable attention. Already
the first experiments conducted by Hook in January of 1680
at the behest of Newton for the verification of falling
bodies eastward led Hook to the conviction that a falling
body deflects not only eastward but also southward. These
experiments were repeated many times and often led to the
same result. The best determinations were made by engineer
Reich in the mine shafts of Freiburg [6]. At l = 158 m, he
obtained l = 4.4 mm, and s toward the east 1 = 28.4 mm
equals the deflection, which agrees well with the theory.
Based on Eq. (11) from these determinations, it follows
that
Q
S -5
---- = 2,8 10 under y = 48ø, (12)
Q
which agrees well with our approximate concepts concerning
the assymetry of the earth's shape.
The experiments on the deflection of falling bodies from a
perpendicular are very complex and laborious. The
interest in these tests disappeared completely after Hagen
in the Vatican [7] with the aid of an Atwood machine a
deflection eastward in excellent agreement with the theory,
and he did not derive any deflection southward. On the
Atwood machine, owing to the tension of the filament, the
eastward deflection decreases by only one half. However,
the southward deflection during the acceleration equals
(1/25)g (as was the case for Hagen) according to Eqs. (9),
(11), should decrease by 25 times. Therefore, the Hagen
experiments do not refute to any extent the effect of the
southward deflection.
Let us now return to the occurrences developing during
the vibration of a heavy body on the surface of the earth.
The causal resultant relationship within the earth creates
on the surface, in addition to the standard time pattern_
+iC , the time pattern +[iC - j (u - ____)}. Therefore, on the
2
surface of the earth on a body with which a cause is
connected, there should act the additional force Q,
directed northward along the axis of the earth and being
determined by Eq. (9). In the actual place where the effect
is located, there should operate a force of opposite sign:
i.e., southward. This means that during vibrations a heavy
body should become lighter. In the opposite case, when the
source of vibration is connected with the mounting, the
body should become heavier. In a pendulum, during a vibration
of the suspension point, there should occur a deflection towards
the south. These phenomena have opened up the remark- able
possibility not only of measuring the distribution of the
forces of the time pattern of the surface of the earth but
also of studying the causal relationships and the
properties of time by the simplest mode, for the
conventional bodies, without difficult experiments with
gyroscopes.
The tests on the study of additional forces caused
by the earth's rotation have the further advantage that the
vibration of the point of the mount- ing cannot reach the
body itself. The damping of the vibrations is necessary in
order to express better the difference in the positions of
cause and effect. Therefore, it is sufficient to suspend a
body on weights on a short rubber band, assuring an
undisturbed mode of operation of the weights during the
vibrations. In a pendulum, one should use a fine capron
thread. In the remaining aspects the tests were conducted
in the same way as with the gyroscopes.
In the weights, during vibrations of the mounting of
the balance arm, an increase actually occurs in the weights
of a load suspended on an elastic (Fig.1). By many
experiments it was proved that the increase in the weight--
i.e., the vertical component of the additional force Q --
is proportional to the weight of the body Q. For
-5
Pulkovo Q /Q = 2.8 ù 10 . The horizontal z components
Qs were determined from the deflection of pendulums of
varying length (from 2 to 11 meters) during the vibration
of a suspension point. During such vibrations the
pendulums, in conformity with the increased load on the
weights, deflected southward. For example, at l = 3.2m, we
-5
obtained l = .052mm. From this, Q /Q = l/l = 1.6 10 ,
S
which corresponds fully to the Reich value (11) found
for the lower latitude. If the force Q is directed along
the earth's axis, there should be fulfilled the condition:
Q /Q = tan y, where y equals the latitude of the site of
Z S
the observations. From the data presented, it follows that
tan y = 1.75, in complete conformity with the latitude at
Pulkovo.
Similar tests were made for a higher latitude in the
city of Kirovsk, and here also a good agreement with the
latitude was obtained. For the weights and the pendulums,
the amplitudes of the vibrations of the mounting point were
of the order of tenths of a millimeter, while the frequency
changed within the limits of tens of cycles per second.
The measurements conducted at various latitudes of the
Northern Hemisphere demonstrated that, in reality, there
exists a parallel where the forces of the time pattern are
lacking: Q = 0 at y = 73ø05'. Extrapolating the data from
these measurements, we can obtain for the pole the
-5
estimation Q/Q = 6.5 ù 10 . Having taken the value C
2
found from the tests conducted with a gyroscope (8),
let us find from this for the
pole: ____ = 45 m/sec. At the equator the velocity of the
earth's rotation is 10 times higher. Therefore, the
indicated u-value can prove to be less than that expected.
However, it is necessary to have it in mind that presently
we do not have the knowledge of the rules of combining the
time pattern which are necessary for the strict calculation
for the ____. Taking into account the vast distance in the
kinematics of the rotations of a laboratory gyroscope and
of the earth, we can consider the results obtained for both
cases as being in good agreement.
On the weights, we conducted a verification of the
predicted variation in the sign, when the load itself
became a source of vibration. For this, under the mounting
area of the balance arm we introduce a rubber lining, and
in place of the load on the elastic, we rigidly suspend an
electric motor with a flywheel which raises and lowers a
certain load. In the case of such vibrations, the entire
linkage of the balance arm of the weights remained as
before. At the same time, we did not obtain an increasse in
the weight, but a lightening of the system suspended to the
fluctuating end of the balance arm. This result excludes
completely the possibility of the classic explanation of
the observed effects and markedly indicates the role of
causality.
In the experiments with vibrations on weights the
variation in the weight of a body Q occurs in jumps,
Z
starting from a certain vibration energy. With a further
increase in the frequency of the vibrations, the variation
in the weight remains initially unchanged, then increases
by a jump in the same value. In this manner, it turned out
that in addition to the basic separating stage Q , that
Z
good harmonic state of the oscillations, we can observe a
series of quantized values: (1/2) Q, Q, 2Q, 3Q .....,
corresponding to the continuous variation in the frequency
of the vibrations. From the observations, it follows that
the energy of the vibrations of the beginning of each stage
evidently forms such a series. In other words, to obtain
multiple stages, the frequencies of the vibrations must be
û2, û3, etc. The impression is gained that weights in the
excited stage behaved like weights without vibrations: The
addition of the same energy of vibrations leads to the
appearance of the stage Qz. However, we have not yet
managed to find a true explanation of this phenomenon. The
appearance of the half quantam number remains quite
incomprehensible. These quantam effects also occurred in
the tests conducted with pendulums. Subsequently, it turned
out that the quantam state of the effects is obtained in
almost all of the tests. It should be noted that with the
weights, we observed yet another inter- esting effect, for
which there is also no clear explanation. The energy of the
vibrations, necessary for the excitation of a stage,
depends upon the estimate of the balance arm of the
weights. The energy is minimal when the load on the elastic
is situated to the south of the weights supports, and
maximal when it is located to the north.
The tests conducted with vibrations have the
disadvantage that the vibrations always affect, to some
extent, the accuracy of the measuring system. At the same
time, in our tests vibrations were necessary in order to
establish the position of the causes and effects.
Therefore, it is extremely desirable to find another method
of doing this. For example, we can pass a direct electric
current through a long metal wire, to which the body of the
pendulum is hung. The current can be introduced through a
point of the suspension and passed through a very fine wire
at the body of the pendulum without interfering with its
oscillations. The Lorentz forces, the interaction of
current, and the magnetic yield of the earth operated in
the plane of the first vertical and cannot cause a
meridianal displacement of interest to us. These
experiments were crowned with success. Thus, in a pendulum
with a length of 2.8 m and a minus voltage in the
suspension point, starting from 15 v and a current force
of0.03 amps, there appeareda jump-like deflection toward
the south by an amount of 0.024 mm, which was maintained
during a further increase of the voltage up to 30 v. To
this deviation there corresponds the relative displacemen
-5
l/l = 0.85 ù 10 , which is almost of
the stage observed during the vibrations. In the case of a
plus voltage at the point of the suspension, we obtained a
similar deflection northward. In this manner, knowing
nothing of the nature of electrical current, we could
already conclude, from only a few of these tests, that the
cause of the current is the displacement of the negative
charges.
It turned out that in the pendulum, the position of the
cause and effect can be established even more simply, by
heating or cooling the point of the suspension. For this,
the pendulum must be suspended on a metal wire which
conducts heat well. The point of the suspension was heated
by an electrical coil. During a heating of this coil until
it glowed, the pendulum deflected southward by half of the
stage, as during the tests conducted with the electrical
current. With a cooling of the suspension point with dry
ice, we obtained a northward deflection. A southward
deflection can also be obtained by cooling the body of the
pendulum, to this end placing it, e.g., in a vessel
containing dry ice at the bottom. In these experiments,
only under quite favourable circumstances did we succeed in
obtaining the full effect of the deflection. It is obvious
that the vibrations have a certain basic advantage. It is
likely that not only dissipation of the mechanical energy
is significant during the vibrations. It is probable that
the forces of the vibrations directed along ju cause the
appearance of additional forces.
In the study of the horizontal forces the success in
the heat experiments permitted us to proceed from long
pendulums to a much more simple and precise device: namely,
the torsion balance. We applied torsion balances of optimal
sensitivity, for which the expected deflection was 5-20
degrees. We utilized a balance arm of apothecary weights,
to the upper handle of which we soldered a special clamp,
to which was attached a fine tungsten wire with a diameter
of 35 microns and a length of around 10 cm. The other end
of the wire was fastened by the same clamp to a stationary
support. To avoid the accumulation of electrical charges
and their electrostatic effect, the weights were reliably
grounded through the support. From one end of the balance
arm we suspended a metal rod along with a small glass
vessel, into which it entered. At the other end was
installed a balancing load of theorder of 20 grams. The
scale, divided into degrees, permitted us to determine the
turning angle of the balance arm. The vessel into which the
metal rod entered was filled with snow or water with ice.
Thereby, there developed a flow of heat along the balance
arm to the rod, and the weights, mounted beforehand on the
first vertical, were turned by this end toward the south.
The horizontal force Q was computed from the deflection
S
angle al with the aid of the formula:
2 2
T - T Q
0 g S
al = ----------- ---- ( --- ), (13)
2 2l Q
4 (3,14)
where T equals the period of the oscillation of the torsion
balance; T equals the period of oscillations
0
of one balance arm, without loads; g equals the
acceleration of gravity; and 2l equals the length of the
balance arm: i.e., between the suspended weights. In this
equation the angle à is expressed in radians. For example,
in the weights with l = 9.0 cm, T = 132 sec, and T = 75
0
sec, we observed a southward deflection by an angle of
17ø.5. Thence, based on Eq. (13), it follows that
-5
Q /Q = 1.8 ù 10
S
is in good agreement with the previously derived value of
the horizontal forces. Half and multiple displacements were
also observed in these experiments conducted with the
torsion balances. Another variation of the experiment was
the heating, by a small alcohol lamp, of a rod suspended
together with a vessel containing ice. The same kind of an
alcohol lamp was placed at the other end of the balance arm
with a compensating weight, but in such a way that it could
not heat the balance arm. During the burning of both
alcohol lamps there occurred a uniform burning of the
alcohol, and in a vertical plane the weights did not go out
of equilibrium. In these experiments we invariably obtained
the opposite effect: i.e., a turning to the north of the
end of the balance arm with the rod.
It is necessary to mention one important conclusion
which follows from the combination of the occurrences which
have been observed. In the case of the effect on the
mounting, this might not influence a heavy body; and at the
same time, forces, applied to each point of it, developed
in the body: i.e., mass forces and, hence, identical to the
variation in the weight. This signifies, by influencing the
mounting, where the forces of the attraction are located,
comprising a result of the weight, we can obtain a
variation in the weight, we can obtain a variation in the
weight, i.e., a change in the cause. Therefore, the tests
conducted indicate a distinct possibility of reversing the
causal relationships.
The second cycle of tests on studying the qualities of
time was started as a result of the observations of quite
strange circumstances, interrupting a repetition of the
experiments. As early as the initial experiments with the
gyroscopes it was necessary to face the fact that sometimes
the tests could be managed quite easily, and sometimes they
proved to be fruitless, even with a strict observance of
the same conditions. These difficulties were also noted in
the old experiments on the southward deflection of falling
bodies. Only in those tests in which, within wide limits,
it is possible to intensify the causal effect -- as, e.g.,
during the vibrations of the mounting of the weights or of
the pendulum -- can we almost always attain a result.
Evidently, in addition to the constant C , in the case of
2
time, there also exists a variable property which can be
called the density or intensity of time. In a case of low
density it is difficult for time to influence the material
systems, and there is requires an intensive emphasis of the
causal-resultant relationship in order that force caused by
the time pattern would appear. It is possible that our
psycological sensation of empty or substantive time has not
only a subjective nature but also, similarly to the
sensation of the flow of time, an objective physical basis.
Evidently many circumstances exist affecting the
density of time in the space surrounding us. In late autumn
and in the first half of winter all of the tests can be
easily managed. However, in summer these experiments become
difficult to such an extent that many of them could not
be completed. Probably, in conformity with these
conditions, the tests in the high altitudes can be
performed much more easily than in the south; in addition
to these regular variations, there often occur some changes
in the conditions for the success of the experiments: these
transpired in the course of one day or even several hours.
Obviously, the density of time changes within broad limits,
owing to the processes occurring in nature, and our tests
utilize a unique instrument to record these changes. If
this be so, it proves possible to have one material
influence another through time. Such a relationship could
be forseen, since the causal-resultant phenomena occurred
not only in time but also with the aid of time. Therefore,
in each process of nature time can be extended or formed.
These conclusions could be confirmed by a direct
experiment.
Since we are studying the phenomenon of such a
generality as time, it is evident that it is sufficient to
take the simplest mechanical process in order to attempt to
change the density of time. For example, using any motor,
we can raise and lower a weight or change the tension of a
tight elastic band. We obtain a system with two poles, a
source of energy and its outflow: i.e., the
causal-resultant dipole. With the aid of a rigid
transmission, the pole of this dipole can be separated for
a fairly extensive distance. We will bring one of these
poles close to a long pendulum during the vibrations of its
point of suspension. It is necessary to tune the vibrations
in such a way that the full effect of southward deflection
would not develop, but only the tendency for the appearance
of this effect. It turned out that this tendency increases
apprciably and converts even to the complete effect if we
bring near to the body of the pendulum or to the suspension
point that pole if the dipole where the absorption of the
energy is taking place. However, with the approach of the
other pole (of the motor), the appearance of the effect of
southern deflection in the pendulum invariably became
difficult. In the case of a close juxtaposition of the
poles of the dipole, their influence on the pendulum
practically disappeared. It is evident that in this case a
considerable compensation of their effects occurs. Its
effect depends only on the distance (spacing). Repeated
ansd careful measurements demonstrated that this effect
diminishes, not inversely proportional to the square of the
distance, as in the case of force fields, but inversely
proportional to the first power of the distance. In the
raising and lowering of a 10-kg weight suspended through a
unit distance, its influence was sensed at a distance of
2-3 meters from the pendulum. Even the thick wall of the
laboratory did not shield this effect. It is necessary to
comment that all of these tests, similarly to the previous
ones, also were not always successful.
The results obtained indicate that nearer the system
with the causal-resultant relationship the density of time
actually changes. Near the motor there occurs a thinning
(rarefaction of time), while near the energy receiver its
compaction takes place. The impression is gained that time
is extended by a cause and, contrariwise, it becomes more
advanced in that place where the effect is located.
Therefore, in the pendulum assistance is obtained from the
receiver, and interference from the part on the motor. By
these cond- itions we might also explain the easy
accomplishment of the experiments in winter and in northern
latitudes, while in summer and in the south it is difficult
to perform the tests. The fact of the matter is that in our
latitudes in winter are located the effects of the dynamics
of the atmosphere of the south ern latitudes. This
circumstance can assist the appearance of the effects of
the time pattern. However, generally and particularly in
summer the heating by solar rays creates an atmospheric
loader, interfering with the effects.
The effect of time differs basically from the effect of
force fields. The effect of the causal pole on the device
(pendulum) immediately creates two equal and opposite
forces, applied to the body of the pendulum and the
suspension point. There occurs a transmission of energy,
without momentum, and, hence, also without delivery to the
pole. This circumstance explains the reduction of the
influences inversely proportional to the first power of the
distances, since according to this law an energy decrease
takes place. Moreover, this law could could be foreseen,
simply proceeding from circumstance of time to expressed by
the turning, and hence with it it is necessary to link the
plane, passing through the pole with any orientation in
space. In the case of the force lines emerging from the
pole, their density decreases in inverse proportion to the
square of the distance; however, the density ofthe planes
will diminished according to the law of the first power of
the distance. The transmission of energy without momentim
(pulse) should still have the following very important
property: Such a transmission should be instantaneous:
i.e., it cannot be propogating because the transmission of
the pulse is associated with propogation. This circumstance
follows from the most general concepts concern- ing time.
Time in the universe is not propagated but appears
immediately every- where. On a time axis the entire
universe is projected by one point. Therefore, the altered
properties of a given second will appear everywhere at
once, diminishing according to the law of inverse
proportionality of the first power of the distance. It
seems to us that such a possibility of the instantaneous
transfer of information through time should not contradict
the special theory of relativity -- in particular, the
relativity of the concept of simultaneity. The fact is that
the simultaneity of effects through time is realized in the
advantageous system of coordinates with which the source of
these effects is associated.
The possibility of communications through time will
probably help to explain not only the features of
biological relationship but also a number of puzzling
phenomena of the physics of man. Perhaps instinctive
knowledge is obtained specifically in this manner. It is
quite likely that in this same way there are realized also
the phenomena of telepathy: i.e., the transmission of
thought over a distance. All these relationships are not
shielded and hence have the property for the transmission
of influences through time.
Further observations indicate that in the
causal-resultant dipoles a complete compensation of the
effect of its poles does not take place. Obviously, in the
process there occurs the absorption or output of certain
qualities of time. Therefore, the effect of the process
could be observed without a preliminary excitation of the
system.
The previously applied torsion weights (balances) were
modified in such a manner that, when possible, we would
increase the distance between the weights suspended to the
balance arm. This requirement was realized with a
considerable lengthening (up to 1.5 m) of the suspension
filament of one of the weights. As a result, the torsion
balances came to resemble a gravitational variometer, only
with the difference that in them the balance arm could be
freely moved around a horizontal axis. The entire system
was well grounded and shielded by a metal housing in order
to avert the electrostatic effects. The masses of the
weights were of the order of 5-20 grams. In the realization
of any reversible process near one of the weights, we
obtained a turning of the balance arm toward the meridian
by a small angle à of the order of 0ø.3, with a sensitivity
of the weights corresponding to a slewing by 9ø for the
case of the effects of the forces of a time pattern of full
magnitude. In this manner, the forces which were occurring
prove to be 30 times less than the standard forces of a
time pattern (9) perturbed by the contact effect. In other
respects, these forces prove to be quite similar to those
previously investigated. They act along the axis of the
earth and yield the same series of quantized values of the
slewing angle «à, à, 2à... It turned out that the vertical
components of these forces can be observed in the
analytical scales, if we separates the weights in them far
enough, by means of the same considerable lengthening of
the suspension filament of one of the weights.
These tests indicated the basic possibility of the
effect through time of an irreversible process upon a
material system. At the same time, the very low value of
the forces obtained testifies to a certain constructive
incorrectness of the experiment, owing to which there takes
place an almost compensation of the forces originating in
the system. As a result, only a small residue of these
forces acts upon the system. Obviously, in our design,
during the effect upon one weight, there also develops an
effect upon the second weight, stopping the turning of the
torsion balances. Most likely, this transmission of the
effect to the second weight occurs through the suspension
point. In reality, the appearance of forces of the time
pattern in one of the weights signifies the transformation
of the forces of the weight of this load and its reaction
in the mounting point to a new time pattern, associated
with the earth's rotation. The transformation of the time
pattern in the suspension point of the torsion balances can
also cause the transformation of all the forces acting
here, signi- fying also the reaction of the second weight.
However, the appearance of an additional reaction requires
the appearance of the additional force of the weight of the
second load. Therefore, in this design, during the effect
upon one load there also originates an effect upon the
second load, stopping the turning of the turning of the
torsion balances. The concept discussed indicates that to
obtain substantial effects in the torsion balances, it is
necessary to introduce an abrupt asymmetry in the
suspensions of the loads.
As a result of a number of tests, the following design
of the asymetrical torsion balances proved successful: One
cylindrical load of considerable weight was chosen, around
300 grams. This main weight was suspended from the
permanent filament made of capron, with a length of around
1.5 meters and a diameter of 0.15 mm. To this weight there
was rigidly fastened, arranged horizontally, a light-weight
metal plate around 10 cm in length. The free end of this
plate was supported by a very thin capron filament fastened
at the same point as the main filament. From this free end
of the plate, we suspended on a long thin wire a weight of
the order of 10 grams. For damping the system the main
weight was partly lowered into a vessel containing machine
oil. By a turn at the suspension point, the horizontal
plate was set perpendicular to the plane of the meridian.
Let us now assume that in the system a force has
developed affecting only the main weight in the plane of
the meridian: i.e., perpendicularly to the plate. This
force deflects the main weight by a certain angle x. The
free end of the plate with a small load will also be
deflected by this same angle. Therefore, upon the small
load there will act a horizontal force, tending to turn the
plate towsrd the plane of the meridian and equalling the
weight of the small load multiplied by the angle x. Since
the deflection angle x equals the relative change in the
weight, a force equalling the additional force of the time
pattern for the weight of the small load will act on the
small load. Therefore, the turning angle of the torsion
balances can be computed according to the previous Eq.
(13), assuming that in it T = 0. The same turning, but in
an opposite 0 direction, should be obtained during the
effect upon only one small load. This condition was
confirmed by experiments with strong influences from close
distances. However, it turned out that a heavy weight
absorbed the effect better than a small weight. Therefore,
weak remote effects are received (absorbed) by only one
large load, which permitted us to observe the effects upon
the device at very considerable distances from it, of the
order of 10-20 meters. However, the optimal distance in
these tests was around 5 meters.
The asymmetrical torsion balances described proved to
be a successful design. The calculated angle of their
turning under the effect of additional forces of the time
pattern should be of the order of 14ø. In the case of a
contactless effect over a distance, we obtained large
deflections, which reached the indicated value. In these
tests, as in the previous ones, we once again observe the
discrete state of the stable deflections with a power of
one fourth of the full effect: i.e., 3ø5.
The processes causing deflection of the weights were
most varied: heating of the body; burning of an electric
tube; cooling of a previously heated body; the operation of
an electrical battery, closed through resistance; the
dissolving of various salts in water; and even the movement
of a man's head. A particularly strong effect is exerted by
nonstationary processes: e.g., the blinking of an electric
bulb. Owing to the processes occurring near the weights and
in nature, the weights behave themselves very erratically.
Their zero point often becomes displaced, shifting by the
above-indicated amounts and interfering considerably with
the observations. It turned out that the balances can be
shielded, to a considerable extent, from these influences
by placing near them an organic substance consisting only
of right-handed molecules: for example, sugar. The
left-handed molecules -- e.g., turpentine -- evidently
cause the opposite effect.
In essence, the tests conducted demonstrate that it is
possible to have the influence through time of one process
upon another. In reality, the appearance of forces turning
the torsion balances alters the potential energy of the
balances. Therefore, in principle, there should take place
a change in any phys- ical process which is associated with
them.
At a session of the International Astronomical Union in
Brussels the fall of 1966 the author presented a report
concerning the physical features of the comp- onents of
double stars. In binary systems a satellite constitutes an
unusual star. Asa result of long existence, a satellite
becomes similar to a principal star in a number of physical
aspects (brightness, spectral type, radius). At such great
distances the possibility is excluded that the principal
star will exert an influence upon a satellite in the usual
manner: i.e., through force fields. Rather, the binary
stars constitute an astronomical example of the processed
in one body upon the processes in another, through time.
Among the many tests conducted, we should mention the
observations which demonstrated the existence of yet
another interesting feature in the qualities of time. It
turned out that in the experiments with the vibrations of
the mount- ing point of the balances or of the pendulum
additional forces of the time pattern which developed do
not disappear immediately with the stoppage of the
vibrations, but will remain in the system for a
considerable period. Considering that they decrease
according to the exponential law exp(-t/to), estimations were
made of the time to of their relaxation. It turned out that
t does not depend on the mass of the body but on its
density p. We obtained the following approximate data:
for lead p = 11, to = 14 seconds; for aluminum p = 2.7,
to= 28 seconds; for wood p = 0.5, to = 70 seconds. In this
manner it ispossible that to is inversely proportional to
the square root of the bodies density. It is curious that the
preservation of the additional forces in the system, after
a cesstation of the vibrations, can be observed in the
balances in the most simple manner. Let us imagine balance
scales in which on of the weights is suspended on rubber.
Let us take this weight with one hand and, with the
pressure of the other hand upon the balance arm, replace
the effect of the weight taken from it. We will shake the
removed weight for a certain time (around a minute) on the
rubber, and then we will place it back upon the scales. The
scales will indicate the gradual lightening of this load,
in conformity with the above-listed values for to . It is
understandable that in this test it is necessary to take
measures 0 in order that one's hand does not heat the
balance arm of the scales. In place of a hand, the end of
the balance arm from which the weight is taken can be held
by a mechanical clamp. Sometimes this amazingly simple test
can be accomplished quite easily, but there are days when,
similarly to certain other tests, it is achieved with
difficulty or cannot be accomplished at all.
Based on the above-presented theoretical concepts and
all of the experimental data, the following general
inferences can be made:
1. The causal states, derived from three axioms, of the
effect concerning the properties of a time pattern are
confirmed by the tests. Therefore, we can consider that
these axioms are substantiated by experiment. Specifically,
we confirm axiom II concerning the spatial non-overlapping
of causes and effects. Therefore, the force fields
transmitting the influnces should be regarded as a system
of discrete, non-overlapping points. This finding is linked
with the general philosophical principal of the possibility
of cognition of the world. For the possibility of at least
a marginal cognition, the combination of all material
objects should be a calculated set: i.e., it should
represent a discrete state, being superimposed on the
continuum of space.
As concerns the actual results obtained during the
experimental justification of the axiom of causality, among
them the most important are the conclusions concerning the
finiteness of the time pattern, the possibility of partial
reversal of the causal relationships, and the possibility
of obtaining work owing to the time pattern.
2. The tests proved the existence of the effects
through time of one material system upon another. This
effect does not transmit a pulse (momentum), meaning it
does not propogate but appears simultaneously in any
material system. In this manner, in principle it proves
possible to have a momentary relationship and a momentary
transmission of information. Time accomplishes a
relationship between all phenomena of nature and
participates actively in them.
3. Time has diverse qualities, which can be studied by
experiments. Time contains the entire universe of still
unexplored occurrences. The physical experiments studying
these phenomena should gradually lead to an understanding
of what time represents. However, knowledge should show us
how to penetrate into the world of time and teach us how to
affect it.
Pulkovo, September 1967
N. Kozyrev
BIBLIOGRAPHY
(1) Reichenbach, H., "the Direction of Time," Berkeley,
1956
(2) Whitrow, G. J., "The Natural Philosophy of Time,"
London 1961
(3) Gauss, C. F., "Gottingen Learned Review (in German),"
p.635, 1831
(4) Kozyrev, N. A., "possible Asymmetry in Shapes of
Planets," Doklady Ak. Nauk SSSR, Vol 70, p 389, 1950.
(5) Kozyrev, N. A., Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Observatorii
(Bull. Of Crimean Astrophysical Observatory), Vol 2,
No 1, 1948; Vol 6, No 54, 1950.
(6) Reich, "Drop Tests Concerning Earth's Rotation," (in
German), 1832.
(7) Hagen, I. G., "The Earth's Rotation: Its Ancient and
Modern Mecanical Proofs," (in French), Sp. Astr.
Vaticana Second. App., Rome, 1912
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