POSSIBILITY OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF TIME
[Unpublished article by N. A. Kozyrev: English title as above; Pulkovo,
"O VOZMOZHNOSTI EKSPERIMENTAL'NGO ISSLEDOVANIYA SVOYSTV VREMENI", Russian,
September 1967, pp 149]
Part 1.
Theoretical Concepts
Time is the most important and most enigmatic property of nature. The
concept of time surpasses our imagination. The recondite attempts to understand
the nature of time by the philosophers of antiquity, the scholars in the Middle
Ages, and the modern scientist, possesing a knowledge of sciences and the exper
ience of their history, have proven fruitless. Probably this occurs because time
involves the most profound and completely unknown properties of the world which
can scarcely bne envisaged by the bravest flight of human fancy. Past these
properties of the world there passes the thiumphal procession of modern science
and technical progress. In reality, the exact sciences negate the existence in
time of any other qualities other than the simplest quality of "duration" or
time intervals, the measurement of which is realized in hours. This quality of
time is similar to the spatial interval. The theory of relativity by Einstein
made this analogy more profound, considering time intervals and space as compo
nents of a fourdimensional interval of a Minkowski universe. Only the pseudo
Euclidian nature of the geometry of the Minkowski universe differentiates the
time interval from the space interval. Under such a conception, time is scalar
( scalar = weight ) and quite passive. It only supplements the spatial arena,
against which the events of the universe are played out. Owing to one
scalarity of time, in the equations of theoretical mechanics the future is not
separated from the past; hence the causes are not separated from the results.
In the result, classical mechanics brings to the universe a strictly determin
istic, but deprived, causality. At the same time, causality comprises the most
important quality of the real world.
The concept of causality is the basis of natural science. The natural scien
tist is convinced that the question "why?" is a legitimate one, that a question
can be found for it. However, the content of the exact sciences is much more
impoverished. In the precise sciences, the legitimate question is only "how?".
i.e., in what manner a given chain of occurrences takes place. Therefore, the
precise sciences are descriptive. The description is made in a fourdimensional
world, which signifies the possibility of predicting events. This possibility
prediction is the key to the power of the precise sciences. The fascination of
this power is so great that it often compels one to forget the basic, incom
plete nature of their basis. It is therefore probable that the philosophical
concept of Mach, derived strictly logically from the bases of the exact
sciences, attracted great attention, in spite of its nonconformity to our
knowlege concerning the universe and daily experience.
The natural desire arises to introduce into the exact sciences the
principles of natural sciences. In other words, the tendency is to attempt
to introduce into theoretical mechanics the principle of causality and
directivity of time. Such a mechanics can be called "causal" or "asymetrical"
mechanics. In such mechanics, there should be be realizable experience,
indicating where the cause is and where the result is. It can be demonstrated
that in statistical mechanics there is a directivity of time and that it
satisfies our desires. In reality, statistical mechanics constructs a certain
bridge between natural and theoretical mechanics. In the statistical group
ing, an asymmetrical state in time can develop, owing to unlikely initial
conditions caused by the intervention of a proponent of the system, the
effect of which is causal. If, subsequently, the system will be isolated,
in conformity with the second law of thermodynamics, its entropy will
increase, and the directivity of time will be associated with this trend
in the variation of entropy. As a result, the system will lead to the
most likely condition; it will prove to be in equilibrium, but then the
fluctuations in the entropy of vaious signs will be encountered with
equal frequency. Therefore, even in the statistical mechanics of an isol
ated system, under the most probable condition, the directivity of time
will not exist. It is quite natural that in statistical mechanics, based
on the conventional mechanics of a point , the direction of time does not
appear as a quality of time itself but originates only as a property of
the state of the system. If the directivity of time and other possible
qualities are objective, they should enter the system of elementary
mechanics of isolated processes. However, the statistical generalization
of such mechanics can lead to a conclusion concerning the unattainability
of equilibrium conditions. In reality, the directivity of time signifies
a pattern continuously existing in time, which, acting upon the material
system, can cause it to transfer to an equilibrium state. Under such a
consideration, the events should occur not only in time, as in a certain
arens, but also with the aid of time. Time becomes an active participant
in the universe, eliminating the possibility of thermal death. Then, we
can understand harmony of life and death, which we perceive as the
essence of our world. Already, owing to these possibilities alone, one
should carefully examine the question as to the manner in which the
concept of the directivity of time or its pattern can be introduced into
the mechanics of elementary processes.
We shall represent mechanics in the simplest form, as the classical
mechanics of a point or a system of material points. Desiring to intro
duce thus into mechanics the principle of causality of natural science, we
immediately encounter the difficulty that the idea of causality has not been
completely formulated in natural science. In the constant quests for causes,
the naturalist is guided rather by his own intuition than by fixed proced
ures. We can state only that causality is linked in the closest way with the
properties of time, specifically with the difference in the future and the
past. Therefore, we will be guided by the following hypotheses:
I) Time possesses a quality, creating a difference in causes from
effects, which caqn be evoked by directivity or pattern. This property
determines the difference in the past from the future.
The requirement for this hypothesis is indicated by the difficulties
associated with the development of the Leibnitz idea concerning the defin
ition of the directivity of time through the causal relationships. The pro
found studies by H Reichenbach [1] and G. Whitrow [2] indicate that one
can never advance this idea strictly, without tautology. Causality provides
us with a concept of the existence of directivity in time and concerning
certain properties of this directivity; at the same time, it does not
constitute the essence of this phenomenon, but only its result.
Let us now attempt, utilizing the simpleist properties of causality,
to provide a quantitative expression of hypotheses I. Proceeding from
those circumstances in which: 1) cause is always outside of the body in
which the result is realized and 2) the result sets in after the cause,
we can dormulate the next two axioms:
II) Causes and results are always separated by space. Therefore,
between them exists an arbitrarily small, but not equalling zero,
spatial difference ëx.
III) Causes and results are separated in time. Therefore, between
their appearance there exists an arbitrarily small, but not equalling
zero time difference ët of a fixed sign.
Axiom II forms the basis of classical Newtonian mechanics. It is contai
ned in a third law, according to whicha variation in a quantity of motion
cannot occur under the effect of internal forces. In other words, in body
there cannot develop an external force without the participation of another
body. Hence, based on the impenetrability of matter, ëx is not = to 0.
However, on the basis of the complete reversibility of time, axiom III is
lacking in the Newtonian mechanics: ët = 0.
In atomic mechanics, just the oppsite takes place. In it, the principle
of impenetrability loses its value and, based on the possibility of the
superposition of fields, it is obviously assumed that ëx = 0. However, in
atomic mechanics there is a temporal irreversibility, which did not exist
in the Newtonian mechanics. The influence upon the system of a macroscopic
body, i.e., they devise, introduces a difference between the future and the
past, because the future proves predictable, while the past is not. There
fore, in the temporal environs of the experiment ët is not = to 0, although
it can be arbitrarily small. In this manner, classical mechanics and
atomic mechanics enter into our axiomatics as two extreme systems. This
circumstance becomes especially clear if we introduce the relationship:
ëx
 = C
ët ý (1)
In a real world, C most likely constitutes a finite value. However, in
ý
classical mechanics, ëx is not = to 0, ët = 0, and hence C = ì. In atomic
ý
mechanics, ëx = 0, ët is not = 0, and therefore C = 0.
ý
Let us now discuss the concept of the symbols ëc and ët introduced by us.
In a long chain of causalresultant transformations, we are considering only
that elementary chain wherein the cause produces the result. According to the
usual physical viewpoints, this chain comprises a spatial time point, not
subject to further analysis. However, on the bases of our axioms of causality,
this elementary causalresultant chain should have a structure caused by
the impssibility of the spatialtime superimposition of causes and effects.
The condition of nonsuperimposition in the case of the critical approach
is stipulated by the symbols ëx and ët. Hence, these symbols signify the limit
of the infinitelysmall values under the condition that they never revert to 0.
These symbols determine the point distances or dimensions of an "empty" point,
situated between the material points, with which the causes and effects are
linked. However, in the calculation of the intervalsc of the entire causal
resultant chain, they should be considered equal to 0 with any degree of
accuracy. However, in the calculation of the low values of one order, their
ratio C can be a finite value and can express a qualitatively physical
ý
property of the causalresultant relationship. This physical property is
included in the pattern of time, formulated qualitatively by hypothesis I.
In reality, according to definition (I), the value C has the dimensionality
ý
of velocity and yields a value of the rate of the transition of the cause to the
effect. This transition is accomplished through the "empty" point, where there
are no material bodies and there is only space and time. Hence, the value C
ý
can be associated only with the properties of time and space, not with the
properties of bodies. Therefore, C should be a universal constant, typifying
ý
the patter of time of our world. The conversion of the cause to an effect
requires the overcoming of the "empty" point in space. This point is an abyss,
the transition through which can be realized only with the aid of the time
pattern. From this, there follows directly the active participation of time
in the process of the material systems.
In Eq. (1), the symbol ët has a definite meaning. It can be established
by the standard condition: the future minus the past comprises a positive
value. However, the sign of the value for ëx is quite arbitrary, since
space is isotropic and in it there is no principal direction. At the same
time, the sign of C should be definite, because logically we should have a
ý
possibility of conceiving the world with an opposite time pattern: i.e.,
of another sign. The difficulty arises which at first glance seems
insurmountable, and disrupting the entire structure formulated until now.
However, owing to just this difficulty, it becomes possible to make an
unequivocal conclusion: C is not a scalar value but a pseudoscalar value:
ý
i.e., a scalar changing sign in case of the mirror image or inversion of the
coordinate system. In order to be convinced of this, let us rewrite Eq. (1)
in a vector form, having signified by i the unit vector of the direction
of the causalresultant relationship:
C (iët)=ëx (1a)
ý
If C is pseudoscalar, iët should be a critical value of a pseudovector
ý
colinear with the critical vector ëx. The pseudovector nature of iët signifies
that in the plane (YZ) of a perpendicular to the Xaxis there occurs a certain
turning, the sign of which can be determined by the sign of ët. This means that
with the aid of ët, we can orient the plane perpendicular to the Xaxis: i.e.,
we can allocate the arrangement of the Y and Z axes. Let us now alter now in Eq.
(1) the sign of ëx, retaining the sign of ët and signifying the retention of
the orientation of the plane (Y,Z). Then the constant C changes its sign, as it
ý
should, since our operation is tantamount to a mirror image. However, if we
change the sign not only of ëx but also of ët, the constant C based on Eq. (1)
ý
does not change sign. This should be the case, because in the given instance we
effected only a turning of the coordinate system. Finally, changeing the sign
of ët only, we once again obtain a mirror (specular) image of the coordinate
system under which the sign of the pseudoscalar should change. This proof of
the pseudoscalar property of the time pattern can be explained by the
following simple discussion. The time pattern should be determined in relat
ion to a certain invariant. Such an invariant, independant of the properties
of matter, can be only space. The absolute value of the time pattern is
obtained when the absolute difference in the future and the past will be
linked with the absolute difference in the properties of space. In space
there are no differences in directions, but there is an absolute difference
between right and left, although these concepts per se are quite tentative.
Therefore, the time pattern also should be established by a value having the
sense of a linear velocity of turning (rotation). From this it follows that
C cannot equal the speed of light C comprising the conventional scalar.
ý I
From the pseudoscalar properties of the time pattern, there immediately
follows the basic theorem of causal mechanics:
A world with an opposite time pattern is equivalent to our world, reflected
in a mirror.
In a world reflected by a mirror, causality is completely retained. There
fore, in a world with an opposite time pattern the events should develop just
as regularly as in our world. It is erroneous to think that, having run a
movie film of our world in a reverse direction, we would obtain a pattern of
the world of an opposite time direction. We can in no way formally change
the sign in the time intervals. This leads to a disruption of causality:
i.e., to an absurdity, to a world which cannot exist. In a variation of the
directivity of time, there should also become modified the influences which
the time pattern exerts upon the material system. Therefore, the world
reflected in a mirror should differ in its physical properties from our world.
However, classical mechanics confirms the identity of these worlds. Up until
recent times, this identity was assumed in atomic mechanics and was said
to be the law of the preservation of parity. However, these studies by Lie and
Young of the nuclear processes during weak interactions led to the experiments,
having demonstrated the erroneous position of this law. This result is quite
natural under the actual existence of time directivity, which is confirmed
by the direct experiments described later. At the same time,, one can never
make the opposite conclusion. Numerous investigations of the observed
phenomena of the nonpreservation of parity have demonstrated the possibility
of other interpretations. It is necessary to conclude that further experime
nts in the field of nuclear physics narrow the scope of possible interpre
tations to such an extent that the existence of time directivity in the
elementary processes will become quite obvious.
The difference in the world from the mirror image is especially graphically
indicated by biology. The morphology of animals and plants provides many
examples of asymmetry, distinguishing right from left and independently of
what hemisphere of the earth the organism is living in. Asymmetry of organisms
is manifested not only in their morphology. The chemical asymmetry of proto
plasm discovered by Louis Pasteur demonstrates that the asymmetry constitutes
a basic property of life. The persistent asymmetry of organisms being
transmitted to their descendents cannot be random. This asymmetry can be
not only a passive result of the laws of nature, reflecting the time direct
ivity. Most likely, under a definite asynnetry, corresponding to the given
time pattern, an organism acquires an additional viability: i.e., it can use
it for the reinforcement of life processes. Then, on the bases of our
fundamental theorem, we can conclude that in a world with an opposite time
pattern, the heart in the vertebrates would be located on the right, the
shells of mollusks would be mainly turned leftward, and in protoplasm there
would be observed an opposite qualitative inequality of the right and left
molecules. It is possible that the specially formulated biological experi
ments will be able to prove directly that life actually uses the time pattern
as an additional source of energy.
Let us now comment on yet another important circumstance, connected with
the determination of the time pattern by Eq. (1). Each causalresultant
relationship has a certain spatial direction, the base vector of which is
signified by i. Therefore, in an actual causal relationship the pseudo
scalar i ù C will be oriented by the time pattern. Let us prove that at one
ý
point  the cause  and at another point  the result  these values should
be in opposite directions. In reality, the result in the future will be
situated in relation to the cause, while the cause in the past will be situated
in relation to the result. This means that at the points cause and effect ët
should have opposite signs, meaning that there should also be an opposite
orientation of the plane perpendicular to i. Then, at a definite ivalue we
have a change in the type of the coordinate system, and the expression iC
ý
will have different signs. However,if during the transition from the cause to
the effect we have a change in the sign of i, the sign of C will remain
ý
unchanged and, hence, iC will change sign in this case also. This means that ý
ý
the time pattern is characterized by the values ñiC and constitutes a physical
ý
process, the model of which can be the relative rotation of a certain ideal top
(gyroscope). By an ideal gyroscope, we connote a body the entire mass of which
is located at a certain single distance from the axis. This top can have an
effect on another body through a material axis of rotation and material
relationships with this axis, the masses of which can be disregarded. There
fore, the mechanical property of an ideal gyroscope will be equivalent to the
properties of a material point having the mass of the gyroscope, and its
rotation. Let us assume that the point with which the top interacts is situated
along the direction of its axis. Let us signify by j the bas vector of this
direction and consider it to be aq standard vector. We can tentatively,
independently of the type of the coordinate system, place it in another point:
for example, in the direction from which the rotation of the top appears to
be originating  in this case, in a clockwise direction. The rotation of the
top which is occurring can be described by the approximate pseudoscalar ju,
where u equals the linear velocity of rotation. With such a description and
the direction selected by us, u should be pseudoscalar, positive in the
left hand system of coordinates. Let us now consider the motion of a point
upon which the gyroscope axis is acting from the position of the point on
its rim. Since the distance of this point from the plane of the rim is
arbitrarily small, its velocity, computed from the position of the rim in
respect to the radius and the period, will be the same value for u. We can
draw on a sheet of paper the motion of the points of the rim relative to the
center and to the motion of the center from the position of the rim points.
The motion is obtained in one direction if we examine the paper from the
same side: e.g., from above. However, the infinitely small emergence of a
stationary point from the plane of the rim compels us to examine the rotat
ion from another position: i.e., to examine the paper from beneath. We obtain
a rotation in the opposite direction, as a result of which we should compare
with the gyroscope the approximate pseudoscalar: i.e., ju. This signifies
that the time pattern being determined by the values ñiC actually has an
ý
affinity with the relative rotation, which is determined by the value ñju
of the same type. It is understandable that this formal analogy does not fully
esplain the essence of a time pattern. However, it opens up the remarkable
possibility of an experimental study of the properties of time. In reality,
if into the causal relationship there will enter a rotating body, we can
expect a combination of values ñiC and ñju, since this operation is quite
ý
permissible from a mathematical standpoint. In other words, we can expect that
in a system with rotation the time pattern changes instead of ñiC : it
ý
becomes equal to ñ(iC + ju). Let us now attempt to explain which variations
ý
can occur in a mecanical system. For this, it is necessary to refine the
concept of cause and effect in mechanics
The forces are the cause altering the mutual arrangement of bodies and
their quantity of motion. The change in the arrangement of bodies can lead to
the appearance of new forces, and according to the d'Alembert priciple, the
variation of a quantity of motion for unit time, taken with an opposite sign,
can be regarded as the force of inertia. Therefore, in mechanics the forces are
comprised of the causes and all possible effects. However, in the movement of
a body (1) under the effect of a force F, the force of inertia dp/dt does not
constitute a result. Both of these forces originate at one point. According
to axiom II, owing to this there cannot be a causalresultant relationship
between them, and they are identical concepts. Therefore, as Kirchoff operated
in his mechanics, the force of inertia can serve as a determination of the
force F. The force F, applied to point (1) can evoke an effect only in another
point (2). Let us call this force of the result of the effect è of the first
ø
point upon the second: dp dp
1 ý
è = F   =  (2)
ø dt dt
For the first point, however, it comprises the lost d'Alembert force:
dp dp
1 ý
 = F 
dt dt
In conformity with these expressions, we can consider that for the time dt,
point (1) loses the pulse dp which is transmitted to point (2). In the case
ý
for which there is a causal relationship between point (1) and (2), ët is not
= to 0, and between them there exists the approximate difference ëp is not =
ý
to 0. When the cause is situated at point (1), the transition of dp from point
ý
(1) to point (2) corresponds to an increase in the time. Therefore :
ëp dp
ý ý
 =  = è (3)
ët dt ø
Let us signify by i the unit vector of effect è . Then, according to
ø
Eq. (3):
³ ëp ³ ³ ëp ³
ý ³ ý ³ ³ëx³
è = i ³ è ³ =  = i ³  ³ ù 
ø ø ët ³ ëx ³ ët
According to Eq. (1), the value ³ëx³ can be replaced by C if we
 ý
ëx
tentatively utilize that system of coordinates in which C is positive
ý
Under this condition:
³ ëp ³
è = iC ù ³ ý ³ (4)
ø ý ³  ³
³ ëx ³
The factor at iC comprises a value independent of a time pattern: i.e.,
ý
a force invariant. In reality, during any pattern of time not only the spatial
intervals but also the time intervals should be measured by the unchanging
scales. Therefore, the velocity and, consequently, also thepulses should not
depend on the pattern (course) of time. As was demonstrated above, in case of
the existence of a time pattern iC in point (2), there must be in point (1)
ý
the time pattern iC . This means that during the effect upon point (2), there
ý
must be a counter effect or a reaction force R in point (1):
0
³ ëp ³
R = iC ù ³ ý ³
0 ý ³ ³ (5)
³ ëx ³
³ ³
Thus, the third Newtonian law proves to be the direct result of the
properties of causality and pattern of time. The effect and the counter effect
comprise two facets of the identical phenomenon, and between them a time
discontinuity cannot exist. In this manner, the law of the conservation of a
pulse is one of the most fundamental laws of nature.
Let us now assume that the time pattern has varied and, instead of ñiC
ý
it has become equal to ñ( iC + ju ). Then, based on Eqs. (4), and (5), the
ý
following transformation of forces should occur:
³ ëp ³ ³ ëp ³
³ ý ³ ³ ý ³
è = (iC + ju ) ù ³  ³ ; R =  (iC + ju) ù ³³
ý ³ ëx ³ ý ³ ëx ³
The additional forces are obtained
u _
è = è  è = + j  ³è ³ ³
ø C ø ³
ý ³ (6)
u ³
R = R  R = j  ³è ³ ³
ø C ø ³
ý ³

Thus, in the causal relationship with a spinning top (gyroscope), we can
expect the appearance of additional forces (6), acting along the axis of
rotation of the top. The proper experiments described in detail in the follow
ing section indicate that, in reality, during the rotation, forces develop
acting upon the axis and depending upon the time direction. The measured
value of the additional forces permits us to determine, based on Eq. (6), the
value C of the time pattern not only in magnitude but also in sign: i.e.,
ý
to indicate the type of the coordinate system in which C is positive. It turns
ý
out that the time pattern of our world is positive in a levorotary system of
coordinates. From this, we are afforded the possibility of an objective
determination of left and right; the lefthand system of coordinates is said
to be that system in which the time progress is positive, while the right
hand system is one in which it is negative. In this manner, the time progress
linking all of the bodies in the world, even during their isolation, plays
the role of that material bridge concerning the need, of which Gauss (3) has
already spoken, for the coordination of the concepts of left and right.
The appearance of the additional forces can perhaps be graphically repre
sented in the following manner: Time enters a system through the cause to the
effect. The rotation alters the possibility of this inflow, and, as a result,
the time pattern can create additional stresses in the system. The additional
stresses alter the potential and the full energy of the system. These
variations produce the time pattern. From this it follows that time has
energy. Since the additional forces are equal and are directed oppositely, the
pulse of the system does not vary. This signifies that time does not have a
pulse, although it possesses energy.
In Newtonian mechanics, C = ì. The additional forces according to Eq. (6)
ý
disappear, as should occur in this mechanics. This is natural because the
infinite pattern of time can in no way be altered. Therefore, time proves to be
an imparted fate and invincible force. Jowever, the actual time has a finite
pattern and can be effective, and this signifies that the principle of time
can be reversible. How, in reality, these effects can be accomplished should
be demonstrated sometime by experiments studying the properties of time.
In atomic mechanics, C = 0. Equqtions (6), obtained by a certain
ý
refinement of the principles of Newtonian mechanics, are approximate and do
not give the critical transition at C = 0. They only indicate that the
ý
additional effects not envisaged by Newtonian mechanics will play the pre
dominant part. The causality becomes completely intertwined (confused) and the
occurrences of nature will remain to be explained statistically.
The Newtonian mechanics correspond to a world with infinitely stable causal
causal relationships, while atomic mechanics represent another critical case
of a world with infinitely weal causal relationships. Equations (6) indicate
that the mechanics corresponding to the principles of the causality of natural
science should be developed from the aspect of Newtonian mechanics, and not from
the viewpoint of atomic mechanics. For instance, we can expect the apperance
of quantam effects in macroscopic mechanics.
The theoretical concepts expounded here are basically necessary only in
order to know how to undertake the experiments in the study of the properties
of time. Time represents an entire world of enigmatic phenomena, and they can
in no way be persuid by logical deliberations. The properties of time must be
gradually explained by physical experiment.
For the formulation of the experiments, it is important to have a fore
knowledge of the value of the expected effects, which depent upon the value
C . We can attempt to estimate the numerical value of C , proceeding from the
ý ý
dimensionality concepts. The single universal constant which can have the
meaning of a pseudoscalar is the Planck constant, h. In reality, this constant
has the dimensionality of a moment of a quantity of motion and determines the
spin of elementary particles. Now, utilizing the Planck constant in any scalar
universal constant, it is necessary to obtain a value having the dimensionality
of velocity. It is easy to establish that the expression
eý
C = à  = à ù 350 km/sec (7)
ý h
comprises a unique combination of this type. Here e equals the charge of an
elementary particle and à equals a certain dimensionless factor. Then, based
on Eq. (6), at u = 100 m/sec, the additional forces will be of the order of
4 5
10 or 10 (at a considerable àvalue) from the applied forces. At such a
value for C , the forces of the time pattern can easily be revealed in the
ý
simplest esperiments not requiring high accuracy of measurements.
Part II.
Experiments on Studying the Properties of Time, and Basic Findings
The experimental verification of the abovedeveloped theoretical concepts
was started as early as the winter of 19511952. From that time, these tests
have been carried on continuously over the course of a number of years with
the active participation by graduate student V. G. Labeysh. At the present
time, they are underway in the laboratory of the Pulkovo Observatory with
engineer V. V. Nasonov. The work performed by Nasonov imparted a high degree
of reliability to the experiments. During the time of these investigations, we
accumulated numerous and diversified data, permitting us to form a number of
conclusions concerning the properties of time. We did not succeed in
interpreting all of the material, and not all of the material has a uniform
degree of reliability. Here we will discuss only those data which were subjected
to a recurrent checking and which, from our viewpoint, are completely reliable.
We will also strive to form conclusions from these data.
The theoretical concepts indicate that the tests on the study of causal
relationships and the relationships and the pattern of time need to be
conducted with rotating bodies: namely, gyroscopes. The first tests were
made in order to verify that the law of the conservation of a pulse is
always fulfilled, and independently of the condition of rotation of bodies.
These tests were conducted on levertype weights. At a deceleration of the
gyroscope, rotating by inertia, its moment of rotation should be imparted
to the weights, causing an inevitable tortion of the suspensions. In order
to avert the suspension difficulties associated with this, the rotation
of the gyroscope should be held constant. Therefore, we utilized gyro
scopes from aviation automation, the velocity of which was controlles by a
variable 3phase current with a frequency of the order of 500 cps. The
gyroscope's rotor turned with this same frequency. It appeared possible,
without decreasing significantly the suspension precision, to supply
current to the gyroscope suspended on weights with the aid of three very
thin uninsulated conductors. During the suspension the gyroscope was
installed in a hermetically sealed box, which excluded completely the effect
of air currents. The accuracy of this suspension was of the order of 0.1 
0.2 mg. With a vertical arrangement of the axis and various rotation
velocities, the readings of the weights remained unchanged. For example,
proceeding from the data for the data for one of the gyroscopes (average
diameter D of rotor equals 4.2 cm: rotor weight Q equals 250 gr.), we can
conclude that with a linear ritational velocity u = 70 m/sec, the effective
force upon the weights will remain unchanged, witha precision higher than
up to the sixth place. In these experiments, we also introduced the follow
ing interesting theoretical complication; The box with the gyroscope was sus
pended from an iron plate, which attracted the electromagnets fastened together
with a certain mass. This entire system was suspended on weights by means of
an elastic band. The current was supplied to the electromagnets with the aid
of two very thin conductors. The system for breaking the current was establi
shed separately from the weights. At the breaking of the circuit, the box with
the gyroscope fell to a clipper fastened to the electromagnets. The amplitude
of these drops and the subsequent rises could reach 2mm. The test was conduct
ed for various directions of suspension and rotation rates of the gyroscope,
at different amplitudes, and at an oscillation frequency ranging from units
to hundreds of cps. For a rotating gyroscope, just as for a stationary one, the
readings of the weights remained unchanged. We can consider that the experiments
described substantiate fairly well the theoretical conclusion concerning the
conservation of a pulse in causal mechanics.
In spite of their theoretical interest, the previous experiments did not
yield any new effects capable of confirming the role of causality in mechanics.
However, in their fulfillment it was noted that in the transmission of the
vibrations from the gyroscope to the support of the weights variations in the
readings of the weights can appear, depending on the velocity and direction of
rotation of the gyroscopes. When the vibrations of the weights themselves
begin, the box with the gyroscope discontinues being strictly a closed system,
However, the weights can go out of equilibrium if the additional effect of the
gyroscope developing from rotation proves to be transferred from the shaft of
the gyroscope to the weights' support. From these observations, a series of
tests with these gyroscopes developed.
In the first type the vibrations were due to the energy of the rotor and
its pounding in the bearings, depending on the clearance in them. It is under
standable that the vibrations interfere with accurate suspension. Therefore,
it was necessary to abandon the precision weights of the analytical type and
convert to engineering weights, in which the ribs of the prisms contact small
areas having the form of caps. Nevertheless, in this connection we managed to
maintain an accuracy of the order of 1 mg in the differential measurements.
The support areas in the form of caps are also convenient by virtue of the fact
that with them we can conduct the suspension of gyroscomes rotating by inertia.
A gyroscope suspended on a rigid support can transmit through a yoke its
vibrations to support of the weights. With a certain type of vibration, which
was chosen completely by feel, there occurred a considerable decrease in the
effect of the gyroscope upon the weights during its rotation in a counter
clockwise direction, if we examined it from above. During rotation in a clock
wise direction, under the same conditions, the readings of the weights remained
practically unchanged. Measurements conducted with gyroscopes of varying weight
and rotor radius, at various angular velocities, indicated that a reduction in
the weight, in conformity with Eq. (6), is actually proportional to the weight
and to the linear rate of rotation. For example, at a rotation of the gyroscope
(D = 4.6 cm, Q = 90 gr, u = 25 m/sec), we obtained the weight difference
Q = 8 mg. With rotation in a clockwise direction, it always turned out that
Q = 0. However, with a horizontal arrangement of the axis, in azimuth, we found
the average value Q = 4 mg. From this, we can conclude that any vibrating
body under the conditions of these experiments should indicate a reduction in
weight. Further studies demonstrated that this effect is caused by the rotation
of the earth, which will be discussed in detail later. Presently, the only
fact of importance to us is that during the vibration there is developed a new
zero reading relative to which with a rotation in a counterclockwise direction,
we obtain a weight reduction, while during a rotation in a clockwise direction
we obtain a completely uniform increase in weight (Q = ñ4 mg). In this manner,
Eq. (6) is given a complete, experimental confirmation. It follows from the
adduced data that C = 550 km/sec. According to this condition, the vector j
ý
is oriented in that direction in which the rotation appears to be originating
in a clockwise direction it is directed downward. With such a rotation, the
gyroscope becomes slightly lighter, meaning that its additional effect upon
the support of the weights is directed downward: i.e., in respect to the base
vector j. This will obtain in the case in which u and C have the same signs.
ý
Under our condition relative to the direction of the base vector j the pseudo
scalar u is positive in a lefthand system of coordinates. Consequently, a
time pattern of our world is also positive in a lefthand system. Therefore,
subsequently we will always utilize a lefthand system of coordinates. The
aggregation of the tests conducted then permitted us to refine the value of C :
ý ý
C = + 700 ñ50 km/sec in a lefthand system. (8)
ý
This value always makes probable the relationship of the time pattern with
other universal constants based on Eq. (7) at à = 2. Then, the dimensionless
constant of the thin Sommerfeld structure becomes simply a ratio of the two
velocities C /C , each of which occurs in nature.
2 1
The tests conducted on weights with vibrations of a gyroscope also yield
a new basic result. It appears that the additional force of effect and counter
effect can be situated in different points of the system: i.e., on the support
of the weights and on the gyroscope. We derive a pair of forces rotating the
balance arm of the weights. Hence, tome possesses not only energy but also a
rotation moment which it can transmit to a system.
A basic checking of the results obtained with the weights yields a pendulum
in which the body constitutes a vibrating gyroscope with a horizontal axis susp
ended on a long fine thread. As in the tests conducted with the weights, during
the rotation of a gyroscope under quiescent conditions nothing took place and
this filament (thread) did not deflect from the perpendicular. However, at a
certain stage of the vibrations in the gyroscope the filament deflected from
the perpendicular, always at the same amount (with a given uvalue) and in the
direction from which the gyroscope's rotation occurred in a counterclockwise
direction. With a filament length 1 = 2 m and u = 25 m/sec, the deflection
amounted to 0.07 mm, which yields, for the ratio of the horizontal force to the
15
weight, the value 3.5 ù 10 , sufficiently close to the results of this suspen
sion.
A significant disadvantage of the tests described is the impossibility of a
simple control of the vibration conditions. Therefore, it is desirable to
proceed to tests in which the vibrations are developed not by the rotor but by
the stationary parts of the system.
In the weights, the support of the balance arm was gripped by a special
clamp, which was connected by a flexible cable with a long metal plate. One end
of this plate rested in a ballbearing, fitted eccentrically to the shaft of an
electric motor, and was connected by a rubber clamp with the bearing. The other
end of the plate was fastened by a horizontal shaft. Changing the speed of the
electric motor and the position of the cable on the plate, we were able to
obtain harminic oscillations of the balance arm support of the weights of any
frequency and amplitude. The guiding devices for raising the balance arm
support during a stopping of the weights eliminated the possibility of horiz
ontal swaying. For the suspension of the gyroscope, it was necessary to find
the optimal conditions under which the vibration was transmitted to the rotor
and, at the same time, this end of the balance arm remained quasifree
relative to the other end, to which the balancing load was rigidly suspended.
Under such conditions, the balance arm can vibrate freely, rotating around
its end, fastened by a weight to a rigid suspension. Oscillations of this type
could be obtained by suspending the gyroscope on a steel wire 0.15 mm in
diameter and with a length of the order of 11.5 m. With this arrangement,
we observe the variation in the weight of the gyroscope during its rotation
around the vertical axis. It was remarkable that, in comparison with the pre
vious tests, the effect proved to be of the opposite sign. During the turning
of the gyroscope counterclockwise, we found, not a lightening, but a consider
able weight increase. This means that in this case there operates upon the gyro
scope an additional force, oriented in a direction from which the rotation
appears to be originating in a clockwise direction. This result signifies that
the causality in the system and the time pattern introduced a vibration and
that the source of the vibration establishes the position of the cause. In
these tests, a source of the vibration is the nonrotating part of the system,
while in the initial model of the tests, a rotor constituted a source. Trans
posing in places the cause and the effect, we alter in respect to them the
direction of rotation: i.e., the sense of the base vector j. From this, based
on Eq. (6), there originates the change in the sign of the additional forces.
In conventional mechanics all of the forces do not depend entirely on what
comprises the source of the vibration, but also on what is the effect. However,
in causal mechanics, observing the direction of the additional forces, we can
immediately state where the cause of the vibrations is located. This means that
in reality it is possible to have a mechanical experiment distinguishing the
cause from the effects.
The tests with the pendulum provided the same result. A gyroscope suspended
on a fine wire, during the vibration of a point of this suspension, deflected
in a direction from which its rotation transpired in a clockwise direction. The
vibration of the suspension was accomplished with the aid of an electromagnetic
device. To the iron plate of a relay installed horizontally, we soldered a flex
ible metal rod, on which the pendulum wire was fastened. Owing to the rod, the
oscillations became more harmonic. The position of the relay was regulated in
such a way that there would not be any horizontal displacements of the
suspension point. For monitoring the control, we connected a direct current,
with which the electromagnet attracted the plate and raised the suspension
point. The position of the filament (thread) was observed with a laboratory
tube having a scale with divisions of 0.14 mm for the object under observation.
Estimating by eye the fractions of this wide division, we could, during
repeated measurements, obtain a result with an accuracy of up to 0.01 mm. At
a pendulum length 1 = 3.30 m and a rotation velocity u = 40 m/sec, the defl
ection of the gyroscope l was obtained as equalling 0.12 mm. In order to obtain
a value of the additional force Q in relation to the weight of the rotor
(Q = 250 g), it is necessary to introduce a correction for the weight of the
gyroscope mounting a = 1.50 g: i.e., to multiply l/e by (Q + a)/Q. From this,
we derive just that value of C which is presented above (8). In these tests it
ý
turned out that to obtain the effect of deflection of the filament, the end of
the gyroscope shaft, from which the rotation appears to be originating in a
clockwise direction, must be raised somewhat. Hence, in this direction there
should exist a certain projection of force, raising the gyroscope during the
vibrations. In reality, the effect of the deflection turns out to be even
less when we have accomplished a parametric resonance of the thread with osci
llations, the plane of which passed through the gyroscope axis. Evidently, the
existence of forces acting in the direction ju intensifies the similarity of
ju with the time pattern and facilitates the transformation ñiC by ñ(iC +ju).
ý ý
It is also necessary to comment that the gyroscope axis needs to be located
in the plane of the firdt vertical meridian  a certain additional
displacement developes. Obviously, this displacement is created by force evoked
by the earth's rotation, which we mentioned in describing the first experiments
of the vibrations on weights. Let us now return to an explanation of these
forces.
Let us signify by u the linear velocity of the rotation of a point situated
on the earth's surface. This point is situated in gravitational interaction with
all other points of the earth's volume. Their effect is equivalent to the effect
_
of the entire mass of the earth at a certain average velocity u, the value of
which is located betewwn zero and u at the equator. Thereefore, in the presence
of a causal relationship there can originate additional forces, directed along
the axis of the earth, and similar forces acting upon the gyroscope during its
_
rotation with the velocity (u  u) relative to the mounting. If the causal
occurrences of the cosmic life of the earth are associated with the outer
layers, these forces should act upon the surface in the direction from which
the rotation appears to be originating counterclockwise: i.e., toward the north.
Thus, in this case on the earth's surface there should operate the forces of
the time pattern:
_
u  u
Q = j  ù ³Q³ (9)
C
ý
[Translator's note: one line of text is missing at this point] in the interior
of the earth, forces act in the opposite direction, and according to the law
of conservation of momentum, the earth's center of gravity does not become
_
displaced. In the polar regions u < u, and therefore there in both hemispheres
Q will be directed southward. Hence, in each hemisphere there is found a
typical parallel where Q = 0. Under the effect of such forces, the earth will
acquire the shape of a cardioid, extending to the south. One of the parameters
characterizing a cardioid is the coefficient of asymmetry :
b  b
s N
=  , (10)
2
where equals the major semiaxis and b and b are the distances of the poles
s N
to the equatorial plane.
On Jupiter and Saturn the equatorial velocity u is around 10 km/sec. There
fore, on planets with a rapid rotation the factor can be very high and reach in
conformity (8), (9) several units of the third place. Careful measurement of
photographs of Jupiter made by the author and D. O. Mokhnach [4] showed that on
3 3
Jupiter the southern hemisphere is more extended and = +3.10 ñ0.6 ù 10
A similar result, only with less accuracy, was also obtained for Saturn:
3 3
= 7.10 ñ 3.10
The measurements of the force of gravity of the surface of the earth and
the motion of artificial earth sattelites indicate that there exists a certain
difference of accelerations of gravity in the northern and southern hemispheres:
5
= g  g > 0, g/g ÷ 3.10 . For a homogeneous planet this should also be the
g N S
case for an extended southern hemisphere, becaues the points of this hemisphere
are located farther south from the center of gravity. The factor should be of
the order of g/g. It is necessary to stress that the conclusion is in direct
contradiction with the abovepresented data concerning theacceleration of
gravity. The gist of this difference consists in the fact that without
allowance for the forces of the time pattern, the increase in gravity in the
northern hemisphere can be explained only by the presence there of denser rocks.
In this case, the leveled surface of the same value should regress farther.
Identifying the level surface with the surface of the earth, it will remain to
be inferred that the northern hemisphere is more extended. However, the sign 10
obtained directly for Jupiter and Saturn provide evidence against this
interpretation, containing in itself a further contradictory assumption
concerning concerning the disequilibrium distribution of the rocks within the
earth.
The sign obtained for the asymmetry of the shapes of planets leads to the
paradoxical conclusion to the effect that the cause of the physical occurrences
within the celestial bodies is situated in the peripheral layers. However, such
a result is possible if, e.g., the energetics of a planet are determined by its
compression. In his studies of the structure of a star [5], the author concluded
that the power of stars is very similar to the power of cooling and compressing
bodies. The inadequacy of the knowledge of the essence of the causal
relationships prevents us from delveing into this qeustion. At the same time,
we are compelled to insist on the conclusions which were obtained from a
comparison of the asymmetry of the planets with the forces acting upon the gyro
scope.
The direction of the perpendicular on the earth's surface is determined by
the combined effect of the forces of gravity, of centrifugal forces, and the
forces of the time pattern Q operating towsrd the north in our latitudes. In
the case of a free fall, the effect on the mounting is absent (Q = 0). As a
result, the freely falling body should deflect from the perpendicular to the
south by the value l :
s
Q
N
l =   ù l (11)
s Q
where l equals the height of the body's fall and Q equals the horizontal
N
component of the forces of the time pattern in the moderate latitudes. A century
or two ago this problem of the deflection of falling bodies toward the south
attracted considerable attention. Already the first experiments conducted by
Hook in January of 1680 at the behest of Newton for the verification of falling
bodies eastward led Hook to the conviction that a falling body deflects not only
eastward but also southward. These experiments were repeated many times and
often led to the same result. The best determinations were made by engineer Reich
in the mine shafts of Freiburg [6]. At l = 158 m, he obtained l = 4.4 mm, and
s
toward the east 1 = 28.4 mm equals the deflection, which agrees well with the
ø
theory. Based on Eq. (11) from these determinations, it follows that
5
Q / Q = 2.8.10 at y = 48ø (12)
N
which agrees well with our approximate concepts concerning the assymetry of the
earth's shape. The experiments on the deflection of falling bodies from a perpen
dicular are very complex and laborious. The interest in these tests disappeared
completely after Hagen in the Vatican [7] with the aid of an Atwood machine a
deflection eastward in excellent agreement with the theory, and he did not
derive any deflection southward. On the Atwood machine, owing to the tension
of the filament, the eastward deflection decreases by only one half. However,
the southward deflection during the acceleration equals 1/25 (as was the case
for Hagen). according to Eqs. (9), (11), should decrease by 25 times. Therefore,
the Hagen experiments do not refute to any extent the effect of the southward
deflection.
Let us now return to the occurrences developing during the vibration of a
heavy body on the surface of the earth. The causal resultant relationship within
the earth creates on the surface, in addition to the standard time pattern
_
ñiC , the time pattern ñ/iC  j (u  u)/. Therefore, on the surface of the earth
ý ý
on a body with which a cause is connected, there should act the additional
force Q, directed northward along the axis of the earth and being determined
by Eq. (9). In the actual place where the effect is located, there should
operate a force of opposite sign: i.e., southward. This means that during
vibrations a heavy body should become lighter. In the opposite case, when the
source of vibration is connected with the mounting, the body should become
heavier. In a pendulum, during a vibration of the suspension point, there should
occur a deflection towards the south. These phenomena have opened up the remark
able possibility not only of measuring the distribution of the forces of the
time pattern of the surface of the earth but also of studying the causal
relationships and the properties of time by the simplest mode, for the
conventional bodies, without difficult experiments with gyroscopes.
The tests on the study of additional forces caused by the earth's
rotation have the further advantage that the vibration of the point of the mount
ing cannot reach the body itself. The damping of the vibrations is necessary
in order to express better the difference in the positions of cause and effect.
Therefore, it is sufficient to suspend a body on weights on a short rubber band,
assuring an undisturbed mode of operation of the weights during the vibrations.
In a pendulum, one should use a fine capron thread. In the remaining aspects the
tests were conducted in the same way as with the gyroscopes.
In the weights, during vibrations of the mounting of the balance arm, an
increase actually occurs in the weights of a load suspended on an elastic
(Fig.1). By many experiments it was proved that the increase in the weight
i.e., the vertical component of the additional force Q  is proportional
z 5
to the weight of the body Q. For Pulkovo Q / Q = 2.8 ù 10 . The horizontal
z
components Qs were determined from the deflection of pendulums of varying
length (from 2 to 11 meters) during the vibration of a suspension point. During
such vibrations the pendulums, in conformity with the increased load on the
weights, deflected southward. For example, at l = 3.2m, we obtained l = .052mm.
5
From this, Qs/Q = l/l = 1.6 ù 10 , which corresponds fully to the Reich
value (11) found for the lower latitude. If the force Q is directed along the
earth's axis, there should be fulfilled the condition: Qz/Qs = tan æ, where
æ equals the latitude of the site of the observations. From the data presented,
it follows that tan æ = 1.75, in complete conformity with the latitude at
Pulkovo.
Similar tests were made for a higher latitude in the city of Kirovsk, and
here also a good agreement with the latitude was obtained. For the weights and
the pendulums, the amplitudes of the vibrations of the mounting point were of
the order of tenths of a millimeter, while the frequency changed within the
limits of tens of cycles per second.
The measurements conducted at various latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere
demonstrated that, in reality, there exists a parallel where the forces of the
time pattern are lacking: Q = 0 at æ = 73ø05'. Extrapolating the data from
5
these measurements, we can obtain for the pole the estimation Q/Q = 6.5 ù 10 .
Having taken the value C found from the tests conducted with a gyroscope (8),
ý _ ~
let us find from this for the pole: u = 45 m/sec. At the equator the _velocity
of the earth's rotation is 10 times higher. Therefore, the indicated uvalue
can prove to be less than that expected. However, it is necessary to have it in
mind that presently we do not have the knowledge of the rules of combining the
_
time pattern which are necessary for the strict calculation for the u. Taking
into account the vast distance in the kinematics of the rotations of a
laboratory gyroscope and of the earth, we can consider the results obtained for
both cases as being in good agreement.
On the weights, we conducted a verification of the predicted variation in
the sign, when the load itself became a source of vibration. For this, under the
mounting area of the balance arm we introduce a rubber lining, and in place of
the load on the elastic, we rigidly suspend an electric motor with a flywheel
which raises and lowers a certain load. In the case of such vibrations, the
entire linkage of the balance arm of the weights remained as before. At the same
time, we did not obtain an increasse in the weight, but a lightening of the
system suspended to the fluctuating end of the balance arm. This result excludes
completely the possibility of the classic explanation of the observed effects and
markedly indicates the role of causality.
In the experiments with vibrations on weights the variation in the weight of
a body Qz occurs in jumps, starting from a certain vibration energy. With a
further increase in the frequency of the vibrations, the variation in the weight
remains initially unchanged, then increases by a jump in the same value. In this
manner, it turned out that in addition to the basic separating stage Qz, that
good harmonic state of the oscillations, we can observe a series of quantized
values: « Q, Q, 2Q, 3Q ....., corresponding to the continuous variation in
the frequency of the vibrations. From the observations, it follows that the
energy of the vibrations of the beginning of each stage evidently forms such a
series. In other words, to obtain multiple stages, the frequencies of the
vibrations must be û2, û3, etc. The impression is gained that weights in the
excited stage behaved like weights without vibrations: The addition of the same
energy of vibrations leads to the appearance of the stage Qz. However, we have
not yet managed to find a true explanation of this phenomenon. The appearance of
the half quantam number remains quite incomprehensible. These quantam effects
also occurred in the tests conducted with pendulums. Subsequently, it turned
out that the quantam state of the effects is obtained in almost all of the
tests. It should be noted that with the weights, we observed yet another inter
esting effect, for which there is also no clear explanation. The energy of the
vibrations, necessary for the excitation of a stage, depends upon the estimate
of the balance arm of the weights. The energy is minimal when the load on the
elastic is situated to the south of the weights supports, and maximal when it
is located to the north.
The tests conducted with vibrations have the disadvantage that the
vibrations always affect, to some extent, the accuracy of the measuring system.
At the same time, in our tests vibrations were necessary in order to establish
the position of the causes and effects. Therefore, it is extremely desirable to
find another method of doing this. For example, we can pass a direct electric
current through a long metal wire, to which the body of the pendulum is hung.
The current can be introduced through a point of the suspension and passed
through a very fine wire at the body of the pendulum without interfering with
its oscillations. The Lorentz forces, the interaction of current, and the
magnetic yield of the earth operated in the plane of the first vertical and
cannot cause a meridianal displacement of interest to us. These experiments were
crowned with success. Thus, in a pendulum with a length of 2.8 m and a minus
voltage in the suspension point, starting from 15 v and a current force of0.03
amps, there appeareda jumplike deflection toward the south by an amount of
0.024 mm, which was maintained during a further increase of the voltage up to
30 v. To this deviation there corresponds the relative displacement
5
l/l = 0.85 ù 10 , which is almost of the stage observed during the vibrations.
In the case of a plus voltage at the point of the suspension, we obtained a
similar deflection northward. In this manner, knowing nothing of the nature of
electrical current, we could already conclude, from only a few of these tests,
that the cause of the current is the displacement of the negative charges.
It turned out that in the pendulum, the position of the cause and effect
can be established even more simply, by heating or cooling the point of the
suspension. For this, the pendulum must be suspended on a metal wire which
conducts heat well. The point of the suspension was heated by an electrical
coil. During a heating of this coil until it glowed, the pendulum deflected
southward by half of the stage, as during the tests conducted with the
electrical current. With a cooling of the suspension point with dry ice, we
obtained a northward deflection. A southward deflection can also be obtained
by cooling the body of the pendulum, to this end placing it, e.g., in a
vessel containing dry ice at the bottom. In these experiments, only under
quite favourable circumstances did we succeed in obtaining the full effect
of the deflection. It is obvious that the vibrations have a certain basic
advantage. It is likely that not only dissipation of the mechanical energy is
significant during the vibrations. It is probable that the forces of the
vibrations directed along ju cause the appearance of additional forces.
In the study of the horizontal forces the success in the heat experiments
permitted us to proceed from long pendulums to a much more simple and precise
device: namely, the torsion balance. We applied torsion balances of optimal
sensitivity, for which the expected deflection was 520 degrees. We utilized
a balance arm of apothecary weights, to the upper handle of which we soldered
a special clamp, to which was attached a fine tungsten wire with a diameter
of 35 microns and a length of around 10 cm. The other end of the wire was
fastened by the same clamp to a stationary support. To avoid the accumulation
of electrical charges and their electrostatic effect, the weights were
reliably grounded through the support. From one end of the balance arm we
suspended a metal rod along with a small glass vessel, into which it entered.
At the other end was installed a balancing load of theorder of 20 grams. The
scale, divided into degrees, permitted us to determine the turning angle of
the balance arm. The vessel into which the metal rod entered was filled with
snow or water with ice. Thereby, there developed a flow of heat along the
balance arm to the rod, and the weights, mounted beforehand on the first
vertical, were turned by this end toward the south. The horizontal force Qs
was computed from the deflection angle à with the aid of the formula:
Tý  Tý
0 g Qs
à =  ù  (  )  (13)
4 tý 2l Q
1
where T equals the period of the oscillation of the torsion balance; T equals
0
the period of oscillations of one balance arm, without loads; t equals the
acceleration of gravity; and 2l equals the length of the balance arm: i.e.,
between the suspended weights. In this equation the angle à is expressed in
radians. For example, in the weights with l = 9.0 cm, T = 132 sec, and
T = 75 sec, we observed a southward deflection by an angle of 17ø.5. Thence,
0 5
based on Eq. (13), it follows that Qs/Q = 1.8 ù 10 is in good agreement
with the previously derived value of the horizontal forces. Half and multiple
displacements were also observed in these experiments conducted with the
torsion balances. Another variation of the experiment was the heating, by a
small alcohol lamp, of a rod suspended together with a vessel containing ice.
The same kind of an alcohol lamp was placed at the other end of the balance arm
with a compensating weight, but in such a way that it could not heat the balance
arm. During the burning of both alcohol lamps there occurred a uniform burning
of the alcohol, and in a vertical plane the weights did not go out of
equilibrium. In these experiments we invariably obtained the opposite effect:
i.e., a turning to the north of the end of the balance arm with the rod.
It is necessary to mention one important conclusion which follows from the
combination of the occurrences which have been observed. In the case of the
effect on the mounting, this might not influence a heavy body; and at the same
time, forces, applied to each point of it, developed in the body: i.e., mass
forces and, hence, identical to the variation in the weight. This signifies, by
influencing the mounting, where the forces of the attraction are located,
comprising a result of the weight, we can obtain a variation in the weight, we
can obtain a variation in the weight, i.e., a change in the cause. Therefore,
the tests conducted indicate a distinct possibility of reversing the causal
relationships.
The second cycle of tests on studying the qualities of time was started as
a result of the observations of quite strange circumstances, interrupting a
repetition of the experiments. As early as the initial experiments with the
gyroscopes it was necessary to face the fact that sometimes the tests could be
managed quite easily, and sometimes they proved to be fruitless, even with a
strict observance of the same conditions. These difficulties were also noted
in the old experiments on the southward deflection of falling bodies. Only
in those tests in which, within wide limits, it is possible to intensify the
causal effect  as, e.g., during the vibrations of the mounting of the weights
or of the pendulum  can we almost always attain a result. Evidently, in
addition to the constant C , in the case of time, there also exists a variable
2
property which can be called the density or intensity of time. In a case of low
density it is difficult for time to influence the material systems, and there is
requires an intensive emphasis of the causalresultant relationship in order
that force caused by the time pattern would appear. It is possible that our
psycological sensation of empty or substantive time has not only a subjective
nature but also, similarly to the sensation of the flow of time, an objective
physical basis.
Evidently many circumstances exist affecting the density of time in the
space surrounding us. In late autumn and in the first half of winter all of the
tests can be easily managed. However, in summer these experiments become diffi
cult to such an extent that many of them could not be completed. Probably, in
conformity with these conditions, the tests in the high altitudes can be
performed much more easily than in the south; in addition to these regular
variations, there often occur some changes in the conditions for the success of
the experiments: these transpired in the course of one day or even several
hours. Obviously, the density of time changes within broad limits, owing to the
processes occurring in nature, and our tests utilize a unique instrument to
record these changes. If this be so, it proves possible to have one material
influence another through time. Such a relationship could be forseen, since the
causalresultant phenomena occurred not only in time but also with the aid of
time. Therefore, in each process of nature time can be extended or formed. These
conclusions could be confirmed by a direct experiment.
Since we are studying the phenomenon of such a generality as time, it is
evident that it is sufficient to take the simplest mechanical process in order
to attempt to change the density of time. For example, using any motor, we can
raise and lower a weight or change the tension of a tight elastic band. We
obtain a system with two poles, a source of energy and its outflow: i.e., the
causalresultant dipole. With the aid of a rigid transmission, the pole of this
dipole can be separated for a fairly extensive distance. We will bring one of
these poles close to a long pendulum during the vibrations of its point of
suspension. It is necessary to tune the vibrations in such a way that the full
effect of southward deflection would not develop, but only the tendency for the
appearance of this effect. It turned out that this tendency increases apprciably
and converts even to the complete effect if we bring near to the body of the
pendulum or to the suspension point that pole if the dipole where the absorption
of the energy is taking place. However, with the approach of the other pole
(of the motor), the appearance of the effect of southern deflection in the
pendulum invariably became difficult. In the case of a close juxtaposition of
the poles of the dipole, their influence on the pendulum practically
disappeared. It is evident that in this case a considerable compensation of
their effects occurs. Its effect depends only on the distance (spacing).
Repeated ansd careful measurements demonstrated that this effect diminishes, not
inversely proportional to the square of the distance, as in the case of force
fields, but inversely proportional to the first power of the distance. In the
raising and lowering of a 10kg weight suspended through a unit distance, its
influence was sensed at a distance of 23 meters from the pendulum. Even the
thick wall of the laboratory did not shield this effect. It is necessary to
comment that all of these tests, similarly to the previous ones, also were not
always successful.
The results obtained indicate that nearer the system with the
causalresultant relationship the density of time actually changes. Near the
motor there occurs a thinning (rarefaction of time), while near the energy
receiver its compaction takes place. The impression is gained that time is
extended by a cause and, contrariwise, it becomes more advanced in that place
where the effect is located. Therefore, in the pendulum assistance is obtained
from the receiver, and interference from the part on the motor. By these cond
itions we might also explain the easy accomplishment of the experiments in
winter and in northern latitudes, while in summer and in the south it is
difficult to perform the tests. The fact of the matter is that in our latitudes
in winter are located the effects of the dynamics of the atmosphere of the south
ern latitudes. This circumstance can assist the appearance of the effects of the
time pattern. However, generally and particularly in summer the heating by solar
rays creates an atmospheric loader, interfering with the effects.
The effect of time differs basically from the effect of force fields. The
effect of the causal pole on the device (pendulum) immediately creates two equal
and opposite forces, applied to the body of the pendulum and the suspension
point. There occurs a transmission of energy, without momentum, and, hence, also
without delivery to the pole. This circumstance explains the reduction of the
influences inversely proportional to the first power of the distances, since
according to this law an energy decrease takes place. Moreover, this law could
could be foreseen, simply proceeding from circumstance of time to expressed by
the turning, and hence with it it is necessary to link the plane, passing
through the pole with any orientation in space. In the case of the force lines
emerging from the pole, their density decreases in inverse proportion to the
square of the distance; however, the density ofthe planes will diminished
according to the law of the first power of the distance. The transmission of
energy without momentim (pulse) should still have the following very important
property: Such a transmission should be instantaneous: i.e., it cannot be
propogating because the transmission of the pulse is associated with
propogation. This circumstance follows from the most general concepts concern
ing time. Time in the universe is not propagated but appears immediately every
where. On a time axis the entire universe is projected by one point. Therefore,
the altered properties of a given second will appear everywhere at once,
diminishing according to the law of inverse proportionality of the first power
of the distance. It seems to us that such a possibility of the instantaneous
transfer of information through time should not contradict the special theory of
relativity  in particular, the relativity of the concept of simultaneity. The
fact is that the simultaneity of effects through time is realized in the
advantageous system of coordinates with which the source of these effects is
associated.
The possibility of communications through time will probably help to explain
not only the features of biological relationship but also a number of puzzling
phenomena of the physics of man. Perhaps instinctive knowledge is obtained
specifically in this manner. It is quite likely that in this same way there are
realized also the phenomena of telepathy: i.e., the transmission of thought over
a distance. All these relationships are not shielded and hence have the property
for the transmission of influences through time.
Further observations indicate that in the causalresultant dipoles a
complete compensation of the effect of its poles does not take place. Obviously,
in the process there occurs the absorption or output of certain qualities of
time. Therefore, the effect of the process could be observed without a
preliminary excitation of the system.
The previously applied torsion weights (balances) were modified in such a
manner that, when possible, we would increase the distance between the weights
suspended to the balance arm. This requirement was realized with a considerable
lengthening (up to 1.5 m) of the suspension filament of one of the weights. As
a result, the torsion balances came to resemble a gravitational variometer, only
with the difference that in them the balance arm could be freely moved around a
horizontal axis. The entire system was well grounded and shielded by a metal
housing in order to avert the electrostatic effects. The masses of the weights
were of the order of 520 grams. In the realization of any reversible process
near one of the weights, we obtained a turning of the balance arm toward the
meridian by a small angle à of the order of 0ø.3, with a sensitivity of the
weights corresponding to a slewing by 9ø for the case of the effects of the
forces of a time pattern of full magnitude. In this manner, the forces which
were occurring prove to be 30 times less than the standard forces of a time
pattern (9) perturbed by the contact effect. In other respects, these forces
prove to be quite similar to those previously investigated. They act along the
axis of the earth and yield the same series of quantized values of the slewing
angle «à, à, 2à... It turned out that the vertical components of these forces
can be observed in the analytical scales, if we separates the weights in them
far enough, by means of the same considerable lengthening of the suspension
filament of one of the weights.
These tests indicated the basic possibility of the effect through time of
an irreversible process upon a material system. At the same time, the very low
value of the forces obtained testifies to a certain constructive incorrectness
of the experiment, owing to which there takes place an almost compensation of
the forces originating in the system. As a result, only a small residue of these
forces acts upon the system. Obviously, in our design, during the effect upon
one weight, there also develops an effect upon the second weight, stopping the
turning of the torsion balances. Most likely, this transmission of the effect
to the second weight occurs through the suspension point. In reality, the
appearance of forces of the time pattern in one of the weights signifies the
transformation of the forces of the weight of this load and its reaction in the
mounting point to a new time pattern, associated with the earth's rotation. The
transformation of the time pattern in the suspension point of the torsion
balances can also cause the transformation of all the forces acting here, signi
fying also the reaction of the second weight. However, the appearance of an
additional reaction requires the appearance of the additional force of the
weight of the second load. Therefore, in this design, during the effect upon one
load there also originates an effect upon the second load, stopping the turning
of the turning of the torsion balances. The concept discussed indicates that to
obtain substantial effects in the torsion balances, it is necessary to introduce
an abrupt asymmetry in the suspensions of the loads.
As a result of a number of tests, the following design of the asymetrical
torsion balances proved successful: One cylindrical load of considerable weight
was chosen, around 300 grams. This main weight was suspended from the permanent
filament made of capron, with a length of around 1.5 meters and a diameter of
0.15 mm. To this weight there was rigidly fastened, arranged horizontally, a
lightweight metal plate around 10 cm in length. The free end of this plate was
supported by a very thin capron filament fastened at the same point as the main
filament. From this free end of the plate, we suspended on a long thin wire a
weight of the order of 10 grams. For damping the system the main weight was
partly lowered into a vessel containing machine oil. By a turn at the suspension
point, the horizontal plate was set perpendicular to the plane of the meridian.
Let us now assume that in the system a force has developed affecting only
the main weight in the plane of the meridian: i.e., perpendicularly to the
plate. This force deflects the main weight by a certain angle x. The free end
of the plate with a small load will also be deflected by this same angle. There
fore, upon the small load there will act a horizontal force, tending to turn
the plate towsrd the plane of the meridian and equalling the weight of the small
load multiplied by the angle x. Since the deflection angle x equals the relative
change in the weight, a force equalling the additional force of the time pattern
for the weight of the small load will act on the small load. Therefore, the
turning angle of the torsion balances can be computed according to the previous
Eq. (13), assuming that in it T = 0. The same turning, but in an opposite
0
direction, should be obtained during the effect upon only one small load. This
condition was confirmed by experiments with strong influences from close
distances. However, it turned out that a heavy weight absorbed the effect better
than a small weight. Therefore, weak remote effects are received (absorbed) by
only one large load, which permitted us to observe the effects upon the device
at very considerable distances from it, of the order of 1020 meters. However,
the optimal distance in these tests was around 5 meters.
The asymmetrical torsion balances described proved to be a successful
design. The calculated angle of their turning under the effect of additional
forces of the time pattern should be of the order of 14ø. In the case of a
contactless effect over a distance, we obtained large deflections, which reached
the indicated value. In these tests, as in the previous ones, we once again
observe the discrete state of the stable deflections with a power of one fourth
of the full effect: i.e., 3ø5.
The processes causing deflection of the weights were most varied: heating of
the body; burning of an electric tube; cooling of a previously heated body; the
operation of an electrical battery, closed through resistance; the dissolving
of various salts in water; and even the movement of a man's head. A particularly
strong effect is exerted by nonstationary processes: e.g., the blinking of an
electric bulb. Owing to the processes occurring near the weights and in nature,
the weights behave themselves very erratically. Their zero point often becomes
displaced, shifting by the aboveindicated amounts and interfering considerably
with the observations. It turned out that the balances can be shielded, to a
considerable extent, from these influences by placing near them an organic
substance consisting only of righthanded molecules: for example, sugar. The
lefthanded molecules  e.g., turpentine  evidently cause the opposite
effect.
In essence, the tests conducted demonstrate that it is possible to have the
influence through time of one process upon another. In reality, the appearance
of forces turning the torsion balances alters the potential energy of the
balances. Therefore, in principle, there should take place a change in any phys
ical process which is associated with them.
At a session of the International Astronomical Union in Brussels the fall of
1966 the author presented a report concerning the physical features of the comp
onents of double stars. In binary systems a satellite constitutes an unusual
star. Asa result of long existence, a satellite becomes similar to a principal
star in a number of physical aspects (brightness, spectral type, radius). At
such great distances the possibility is excluded that the principal star will
exert an influence upon a satellite in the usual manner: i.e., through force
fields. Rather, the binary stars constitute an astronomical example of the
processed in one body upon the processes in another, through time.
Among the many tests conducted, we should mention the observations which
demonstrated the existence of yet another interesting feature in the qualities
of time. It turned out that in the experiments with the vibrations of the mount
ing point of the balances or of the pendulum additional forces of the time
pattern which developed do not disappear immediately with the stoppage of the
vibrations, but will remain in the system for a considerable period. Considering
t/t
that they decrease according to the exponential law e 0, estimations were
made of the time t of their relaxation. It turned out that t does not depend
0 0
on the mass of the body but on its density p. We obtained the following approx
imate data: for lead S = 11, t = 14 seconds; for aluminum S = 2.7, t = 28
0 0
seconds; for wood S = 0.5, t = 70 seconds. In this manner it is possible that
0
t is inversely proportional to the square root of the bodies density. It is
0
curious that the preservation of the additional forces in the system, after a
cesstation of the vibrations, can be observed in the balances in the most simple
manner. Let us imagine balance scales in which on of the weights is suspended on
rubber. Let us take this weight with one hand and, with the pressure of the
other hand upon the balance arm, replace the effect of the weight taken from it.
We will shake the removed weight for a certain time (around a minute) on the
rubber, and then we will place it back upon the scales. The scales will indicate
the gradual lightening of this load, in conformity with the abovelisted values
for t . It is understandable that in this test it is necessary to take measures
0
in order that one's hand does not heat the balance arm of the scales. In place
of a hand, the end of the balance arm from which the weight is taken can be held
by a mechanical clamp. Sometimes this amazingly simple test can be accomplished
quite easily, but there are days when, similarly to certain other tests, it is
achieved with difficulty or cannot be accomplished at all.
Based on the abovepresented theoretical concepts and all of the
experimental data, the following general inferences can be made:
1. The causal states, derived from three axioms, of the effect concerning
the properties of a time pattern are confirmed by the tests. Therefore, we can
consider that these axioms are substantiated by experiment. Specifically, we
confirm axiom II concerning the spatial nonoverlapping of causes and effects.
Therefore, the force fields transmitting the influnces should be regarded as a
system of discrete, nonoverlapping points. This finding is linked with the
general philosophical principal of the possibility of cognition of the world.
For the possibility of at least a marginal cognition, the combination of all
material objects should be a calculated set: i.e., it should represent a
discrete state, being superimposed on the continuum of space.
As concerns the actual results obtained during the experimental
justification of the axiom of causality, among them the most important are the
conclusions concerning the finiteness of the time pattern, the possibility of
partial reversal of the causal relationships, and the possibility of obtaining
work owing to the time pattern.
2. The tests proved the existence of the effects through time of one
material system upon another. This effect does not transmit a pulse (momentum),
meaning it does not propogate but appears simultaneously in any material system.
In this manner, in principle it proves possible to have a momentary relationship
and a momentary transmission of information. Time accomplishes a relationship
between all phenomena of nature and participates actively in them.
3. Time has diverse qualities, which can be studied by experiments. Time
contains the entire universe of still unexplored occurrences. The physical
experiments studying these phenomena should gradually lead to an understanding
of what time represents. However, knowledge should show us how to penetrate
into the world of time and teach us how to affect it.
Pulkovo, September 1967 N. Kozyrev
BIBLIOGRAPHY
(1) Reichenbach, H., "the Direction of Time," Berkeley, 1956
(2) Whitrow, G. J., "The Natural Philosophy of Time," London 1961
(3) Gauss, C. F., "Gottingen Learned Review (in German)," p 635, 1831
(4) Kozyrev, N. A., "possible Asymmetry in Shapes of Planets,"
Doklady Ak. Nauk SSSR, Vol 70, p 389, 1950.
(5) Kozyrev, N. A., Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Observatorii (Bull. Of Crimean
Astrophysical Observatory), Vol 2, No 1, 1948; Vol 6, No 54, 1950.
(6) Reich, "Drop Tests Concerning Earth's Rotation," (in German), 1832.
(7) Hagen, I. G., "The Earth's Rotation: Its Ancient and Modern Mecanical
Proofs," (in French), Sp. Astr. Vaticana Second. App., Rome, 1912
END